COLLEGE CODE- 170
 

Syllabus

 
 
DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
 
 
LUCKNOW
Evaluation Scheme & Syllabus
 
for
 
B.Pharm. First Year
 
 
 
(Effective from the Session: 2017-18)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.)
 
COURSE OF STUDY & SCHEME OF EVALUATION FOR INTERNAL AND END SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS
 
(W.E.F. Session 2017-18)
 
FIRST SEMESTER
 
 
CourseNo. ofContinuousInternal AssessmentEnd Semester ExamsTotalCredit
Sessional ExamsTutorial
Name of the CourseHours/ wkModeTotalMarksDuration
CodeMarksPoints
MarksDuration
BP101THuman Anatomy and310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
Physiology– Theory
BP102TPharmaceutical Analysis I310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
– Theory
BP103TPharmaceutics I – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP104TPharmaceutical Inorganic310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
Chemistry– Theory
BP105TCommunication Skills – Theory220302 Hr50------50-2
BP106RBTRemedial Biology/220302 Hr50------50-2
BP106RMTMathematics – Theory
BP107PHuman Anatomy and Physiology45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
– Practical
BP108PPharmaceutical Analysis I45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
– Practical
BP109PPharmaceutics I – Practical45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
BP110PPharmaceutical Inorganic45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
Chemistry– Practical
BP111PCommunication Skills – Practical210152 Hrs25------25-1
BP112RBPRemedial Biology– Practical210152 Hrs25------25-1
Total34$/ 36#110$/ 120#175$/ 190#26$/28#Hrs   285$/440#26$/ 28# Hrs725$/429$/ 30#
310#750#
 
#Applicable ONLY for the students who have studied Mathematics/ Physics/ Chemistry at HSC and appearing for Remedial Biology (RB) course.
 
$Applicable ONLY for the students who have studied Physics/ Chemistry/ Botany/ Zoology at HSC and appearing for Remedial Mathematics (RM) course.
 
 
SECOND SEMESTER
 
CourseName of the CourseNo. ofInternal AssessmentEnd Semester ExamsTotalTuto-Credit
Hours/
CodeContinuousSessional ExamsTotalMarksDurationMarksrialPoints
wk
ModeMarksDuration
BP201THuman Anatomy and Physiology II310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
– Theory
BP202TPharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
– Theory
BP203TBiochemistry – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP204TPathophysiology – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP205TComputer Applications in Pharmacy –325502 Hr75------75-3
Theory
BP206TEnvironmental Sciences – Theory325502 Hr75------75-3
BP207PHuman Anatomy and Physiology II45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
– Practical
BP208PPharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
– Practical
BP209PBiochemistry – Practical45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
BP210PComputer Applications in Pharmacy210152 Hrs25------25-1
– Practical
Total3211520522Hrs32040524 Hrs725429
 
 
BP101T. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-I (Theory)
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the various systems of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostatic mechanisms. The subject provides the basic knowledge required to understand the various disciplines of pharmacy.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
 
Explain the gross morphology, structure and functions of various organs of the human body.
Describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances.
Identify the various tissues and organs of different systems of human body.
Perform the various experiments related to special senses and nervous system.
Appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system.
 
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I
 
Introduction to human body
 
Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.
 
Cellular level of organization
 
Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent; b) Paracrine; c) Synaptic; d) Endocrine.
 
Tissue level of organization
 
Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.
 
Unit II
 
Integumentary system Structure and functions of skin
Skeletal system
 
Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system
 
Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction.
 
 
 
10 hours
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10 hours
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
Joints
 
Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation
 
Unit III10 hours
 
Body fluids and blood
 
Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelial system.
 
Lymphatic system
 
Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system.
 
 
Unit IV
Peripheral nervous system:
 
 
08 hours
 
 
Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
 
Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.
 
Special senses
 
Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.
 
Unit V07 hours
 
Cardiovascular system
 
Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
BP107P. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (Practical)
 
4 Hours/week
 
Practical physiology is complimentary to the theoretical discussions in physiology. Practicals allow the verification of physiological processes discussed in theory classes through experiments on living tissue, intact animals or normal human beings. This is helpful for developing an insight on the subject.
 
Study of compound microscope.
 
Microscopic study of epithelial and connective tissue.
 
Microscopic study of muscular and nervous tissue.
 
Identification of axial bones.
 
Identification of appendicular bones.
 
Introduction to hemocytometry.
 
Enumeration of white blood cell (WBC) count.
 
Enumeration of total red blood corpuscles (RBC) count.
 
Determination of bleeding time.
 
Determination of clotting time.
 
Estimation of hemoglobin content.
 
Determination of blood group.
 
Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
 
Determination of heart rate and pulse rate.
 
Recording of blood pressure.
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Essentials of Medical Physiology by K. Sembulingam and P. Sembulingam. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness by Kathleen J.W. Wilson, Churchill
Livingstone, New York.
3. Physiological Basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI, USA.
 
Text Book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora Grabowski. Palmetto, GA, U.S.A.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
Textbook of Human Histology by Inderbir Singh, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.
 
Textbook of Practical Physiology by C.L. Ghai, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.
Practical workbook of Human Physiology by K. Srinageswari and Rajeev Sharma, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.
Marieb E.N. Human Anatomy and Physiology, Benzamin Cummings (Pearson Education Inc.), San Francisco.
Preventive and Social Medicine by Park K., Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, Jabalpur.
Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness- by Ross & Wilson Churchill Livingstone, London.
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology- by Seeley R.R., Stephens T.D. and Tate P. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Health Education and Community Pharmacy by Parmar N.S., CBS Publishers, Delhi.
 
Health Education and Community Pharmacy by Dandiya, P.C., Zafer, Z.Y.K., and Zafer, A. Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
Samson Wright’s Applied Physiology- by Keele, C.A., Niel, E and Joels N, Oxford University Press, New York.
 
Reference Books (Latest Editions)
 
Physiological Basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI, USA.
Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
Human Physiology (vol 1 and 2) by Dr. C.C. Chatterrje , Academic Publishers Kolkata.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
 
 
BP102T. PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This course deals with the fundamentals of analytical chemistry and principles of electrochemical analysis of drugs.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able to-
 
understand the principles of volumetric and electro chemical analysis.
 
carryout various volumetric and electrochemical titrations.
 
develop analytical skills.
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Pharmaceutical analysis- Definition and scope
 
Different techniques of analysis
 
Methods of expressing concentration
 
Primary and secondary standards.
 
Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate
 
Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures
 
Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.
 
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Acid base titration: Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves
 
Non aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl
 
Unit III10 Hours
 
Precipitation  titrations:    Mohr’s  method,  Volhard’s,  Modified Volhard’s, Fajans
 
method,estimation of sodium chloride.
 
Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.
 
Gravimetry:  Principle  and  steps  involved  in  gravimetric  analysis.  Purity  of  the
 
precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.
 
Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotization titration.
 
 
 
 
5
 
 
Unit IV
 
Redox titrations
 
08 Hours
 
 
 
 Concepts of oxidation and reduction
 
 Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)
 
Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate.
 
 
Unit-V
 
Electrochemical methods of analysis
 
 
07 Hours
 
 
Conductometry- Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.
 
Potentiometry - Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.
 
Polarography - Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6
 
 
BP108P. PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS (Practical)
 
4 Hours / Week
 
Limit Test of the following
 
Chloride
 
Sulphate
 
Iron
 
Arsenic
 
Preparation and standardization of
 
Sodium hydroxide
 
Sulphuric acid
 
Sodium thiosulfate
 
Potassium permanganate
 
Ceric ammonium sulphate
 
Assay of the following compounds along with Standardization of Titrant
 
Ammonium chloride by acid base titration.
 
Ferrous sulphate by Cerimetry.
 
Copper sulphate by Iodometry.
 
Calcium gluconate by complexometry.
 
Hydrogen peroxide by Permanganometry.
 
Sodium benzoate by non-aqueous titration.
 
Sodium Chloride by precipitation titration.
 
IVDetermination of Normality by electro-analytical methods
 
Conductometric titration of strong acid against strong base.
 
Conductometric titration of strong acid and weak acid against strong base.
 
Potentiometric titration of strong acid against strong base.
 
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis- by Mendhanm J., Denny R.C., Barnes J.D., Thomas M, Jeffery G.H., Pearson Education Asia.
 
A Text Book of Pharmaceutical Analysis- by Conners K.A., Wiley Inter-science.
 
Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry- by Beckett A.H., and Stenlake J.B., Vol. I & II. Athlone Press, University of London.
 
British Pharmacopoeia, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, University Press, Cambridge.
 
Quantitative Analysis- by Alexeyev V. CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
 
The Pharmacopoeia of India, The Controller of Publications, Delhi.
 
Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- by P. Gundu Rao.
 
Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry- by Bentley and Driver's.
 
Analytical Chemistry Principles- by John H. Kennedy.
 
 
 
7
 
 
BP103T. PHARMACEUTICS- I (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the preparatory pharmacy with arts and science of preparing the different conventional dosage forms.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to:
 
Know the history of profession of pharmacy.
 
Understand the basics of different dosage forms, pharmaceutical incompatibilities and pharmaceutical calculations.
Understand the professional way of handling the prescription.
 
Preparation of various conventional dosage forms.
 
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy: History of profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry and organization, Pharmacy as a career, Pharmacopoeias: Introduction to IP, BP, USP and Extra Pharmacopoeia.
 
Dosage forms: Introduction to dosage forms, classification and definitions
 
Prescription: Definition, Parts of prescription, handling of Prescription and Errors in prescription.
Posology: Definition, Factors affecting posology. Pediatric dose calculations based on age, body weight and body surface area.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Pharmaceutical calculations: Weights and measures – Imperial & Metric system, Calculations involving percentage solutions, allegation, proof spirit and isotonic solutions based on freezing point and molecular weight.
 
Powders: Definition, classification, advantages and disadvantages, Simple & compound powders – official preparations, dusting powders, effervescent, efflorescent and hygroscopic powders, eutectic mixtures. Geometric dilutions.
Liquid dosage forms: Advantages and disadvantages of liquid dosage forms. Excipients used in formulation of liquid dosage forms. Solubility enhancement techniques
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8
 
 
Unit III08 Hours
 
Monophasic liquids: Definitions and preparations of Gargles, Mouthwashes, Throat Paint, Eardrops, Nasal drops, Enemas, Syrups, Elixirs, Liniments and Lotions.
 
Biphasic liquids:
 
Suspensions: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, classifications, Preparation of suspensions; Flocculated and Deflocculated suspension & stability problems and methods to overcome.
 
Emulsions: Definition, classification, emulsifying agent, test for the identification of type of Emulsion, Methods of preparation & stability problems and methods to overcome.
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Suppositories: Definition, types, advantages and disadvantages, types of bases, methods of preparations. Displacement value & its calculations, evaluation of suppositories.
 
Pharmaceutical incompatibilities: Definition, classification, physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities with examples.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Semisolid dosage forms: Definitions, classification, mechanisms and factors influencing dermal penetration of drugs. Preparation of ointments, pastes, creams and gels. Excipients used in semi solid dosage forms. Evaluation of semi solid dosages forms.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9
 
 
 
BP109P. PHARMACEUTICSI (Practical)
1 . Syrups3 Hours / week
a) Syrup IP’66.
2. Elixirsb) Compound syrup of Ferrous Phosphate BPC’68.
a) Piperazine citrate elixir.
b) Paracetamol pediatric elixir.
3. Linctusa) Terpin Hydrate Linctus IP’66.
4. Solutionsb) Iodine Throat Paint (Mandles Paint).
a) Strong solution of ammonium acetate.
 
Cresol with soap solution.
 
Lugol’s solution.
 
Suspensions a) Calamine lotion.
 
Magnesium Hydroxide mixture.
 
Aluminimum Hydroxide gel.
 
Emulsions  a) Turpentine Liniment.
 
Liquid paraffin emulsion.
 
Powders and Granules
 
ORS powder (WHO).
 
Effervescent granules.
 
Dusting powder.
 
Divded powders.
 
Suppositories
 
Glycero gelatin suppository
 
Coca butter suppository
 
Zinc Oxide suppository
 
Semisolids a) Sulphur ointment
 
Non staining-iodine ointment with methyl salicylate
 
Carbopal gel.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10
 
 
Gargles and Mouthwashes
 
Iodine gargle.
 
Chlorhexidine mouthwash.
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
H.C. Ansel et al., Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Drug Delivery System, Lippincott Williams and Walkins, New Delhi.
 
Carter S.J., Cooper and Gunn’s-Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students, CBS publishers, New Delhi.
 
M.E. Aulton, Pharmaceutics, The Science & Dosage Form Design, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
 
Pharmacopoeia of India, The Controller of Publications, Delhi.
 
British Pharmacopoeia, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, University Press, Cambridge.
 
United States Pharmacopoeia (National Formulary).
 
Lachmann. Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea & Febiger Publisher, The University of Michigan.
 
Alfonso R. Gennaro Remington. The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Lippincott Williams, New Delhi.
 
9Carter S.J., Cooper and Gunn’s. Tutorial Pharmacy, CBS Publications, New Delhi.
 
E.A. Rawlins, Bentley’s Text Book of Pharmaceutics, English Language Book Society, Elsevier Health Sciences, USA.
 
Isaac Ghebre Sellassie: Pharmaceutical Pelletization Technology, Marcel Dekker, INC, New York.
 
Dilip M. Parikh: Handbook of Pharmaceutical Granulation Technology, Marcel Dekker, INC, New York.
 
Francoise Nieloud and Gilberte Marti-Mestres: Pharmaceutical Emulsions and Suspensions, Marcel Dekker, INC, New York.
 
Aulton M.E, Text Book of Pharmaceutics, Vol., I & II. Churchill Livingstone, London.
 
Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy Vol. I & II. Mack Publishing Co., Pennsylvania.
 
Jain N.K., Modern Dispensing Pharmacy, 2nd Ed, PharmaMed Press/BPS Books, Hyderabad.
 
Elementary Pharmaceutical Calculations by Tripathi D.K., PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11
 
 
 
BP104T. PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject deals with the monographs of inorganic drugs and pharmaceuticals.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of course student shall be able to
 
Know the sources of impurities and methods to determine the impurities in inorganic drugs and pharmaceuticals
Understand the medicinal and pharmaceutical importance of inorganic compounds
 
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances: History of Pharmacopoeia, Sources and types of impurities, principle involved in the limit test for Chloride, Sulphate, Iron, Arsenic, Lead and Heavy metals, modified limit test for Chloride and Sulphate.
 
General methods of preparation, assay for the compounds superscripted with asterisk (*), properties and medicinal uses of inorganic compounds belonging to the following classes.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Acids, Bases and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions, measurements of tonicity, calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
 
Major  extra  and  intracellular  electrolytes:  Functions  of  major
 
physiological ions, Electrolytes used in the replacement therapy: Sodium chloride*, Potassium chloride, Calcium gluconate* and Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS), Physiological acid base balance.
 
Dental products: Dentifrices, role of fluoride in the treatment of dental caries, Desensitizing agents, Calcium carbonate, Sodium fluoride, and Zinc eugenol cement.
 
Unit III10 Hours
 
Gastrointestinal agents
 
Acidifiers: Ammonium chloride* and Dil. HCl.
 
Antacid:  Ideal properties of antacids, combinations of antacids, Sodium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12
 
 
Bicarbonate*, Aluminum hydroxide gel, Magnesium hydroxide mixture. Cathartics: Magnesium sulphate, Sodium orthophosphate, Kaolin and Bentonite.
 
Antimicrobials: Mechanism, classification, Potassium permanganate, Boric acid, Hydrogen peroxide*, Chlorinated lime*, Iodine and its preparations.
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Miscellaneous compounds
 
Expectorants: Potassium iodide, Ammonium chloride*.
 
Emetics: Copper sulphate*, Sodium potassium tartarate.
 
Haematinics: Ferrous sulphate*, Ferrous gluconate.
 
Poison and Antidote: Sodium thiosulphate*, Activated charcoal, Sodium nitrite333.
 
Astringents: Zinc Sulphate, Potash Alum.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Radiopharmaceuticals: Radio activity, measurement of radioactivity, properties of α, β, γ radiations, half life, radio isotopes and study of radio isotopes- Sodium iodide I131, storage conditions, precautions & pharmaceutical application of radioactive substances.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13
 
 
BP110P. PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (Practical)
 
4 Hours / Week
 
Limit tests for following ions
 
Limit test for Chlorides and Sulphates Modified limit test for Chlorides and Sulphates Limit test for Iron
 
Limit test for Heavy metals Limit test for Lead
Limit test for Arsenic
 
Identification test Magnesium hydroxide Ferrous sulphate Sodium bicarbonate Calcium gluconate Copper sulphate
IIITest for purity
 
Swelling power of Bentonite
 
Neutralizing capacity of aluminum hydroxide gel
 
Determination of potassium iodate and iodine in potassium Iodide
 
IVPreparation of inorganic pharmaceuticals
 
Boric acid
 
Potash alum
 
Ferrous sulphate
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Pharmacopoeia of India, 1996 Edition, The Controller of Publications, Delhi.
 
Block J.H., Roche E., Soine, T. and Wilson, C., Inorganic, Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
 
Atherden L.M., Bentley and Driver’s Text Book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, London.
 
Miessler, G.L. and Tarr, D.A. Inorganic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), New Delhi.
 
Svehla, G. and Sivasankar, B. Vogel's Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), New Delhi.
 
Rao K.S. and Suresh, C.V. Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Chenchu Lakshmi, N.V. Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), New Delhi.
P. Gundu Rao, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3rd Edition.
 
M.L Schroff, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
 
A.I. Vogel, Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic analysis.
 
Anand & Chatwal, Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
 
 
14
 
 
 
BP105T. COMMUNIUCATION SKILLS (Theory)
 
30 Hours
 
Scope: This course will prepare the young pharmacy student to interact effectively with doctors, nurses, dentists, physiotherapists and other health workers. At the end of this course the student will get the soft skills set to work cohesively with the team as a team player and will add value to the pharmaceutical business.
 
Objectives:
 
Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
Understand the behavioral needs for a Pharmacist to function effectively in the areas of pharmaceutical operation
Communicate effectively (Verbal and Non Verbal)
Effectively manage the team as a team player
Develop interview skills
Develop Leadership qualities and essentials
 
Course content:
 
Unit I07 Hours
 
Communication Skills: Introduction, Definition, The Importance of Communication, The Communication Process – Source, Message, Encoding, Channel, Decoding, Receiver, Feedback, Context.
 
Barriers to communication: Physiological Barriers, Physical Barriers, Cultural Barriers, Language Barriers, Gender Barriers, Interpersonal Barriers, Psychological Barriers, Emotional barriers.
 
Perspectives in Communication: Introduction, Visual Perception, Language, Other factors affecting our perspective - Past Experiences, Prejudices, Feelings, Environment.
 
Unit II07 Hours
Elements of Communication: Introduction, Face to Face Communication - Tone of Voice, Body Language (Non-verbal communication), Verbal Communication, Physical Communication.
 
Communication Styles: Introduction, The Communication Styles Matrix with example for each -Direct Communication Style, Spirited Communication
 
Style, S ystematic Communication Style, Considerate Communication Style.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15
 
 
 
Unit III07 Hours
 
Basic Listening Skills: Introduction, Self-Awareness, Active Listening, Becoming an Active Listener, Listening in Difficult Situations.
 
Effective Written Communication: Introduction, When and When Not to Use Written Communication- Complexity of the Topic, Amount of Discussion’ Required, Shades of Meaning, Formal Communication.
 
Writing Effectively: Subject Lines, Put the Main Point First, Know Your Audience, Organization of the Message.
 
Unit IV05 Hours
 
Interview Skills: Purpose of an interview, Do’s and Dont’s of an interview.
 
Giving Presentations: Dealing with Fears, Planning your Presentation, Structuring Your Presentation, Delivering Your Presentation, Techniques of Delivery.
 
Unit V04 Hours
 
Group Discussion: Introduction, Communication skills in group discussion, Do’s and Dont’s of group discussion.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16
 
 
 
BP111P. COMMUNIUCATION SKILLS (Practical)
 
2 Hours / Week
 
The following learning modules are to be conducted using words worth® English language lab software.
 
Basic communication covering the following topics Meeting People.
 
Asking Questions.
 
Making Friends.
 
What did you do?
 
Do’s and Dont’s.
 
Pronunciations covering the following topics
 
Pronunciation (Consonant Sounds).
 
Pronunciation and Nouns.
 
Pronunciation (Vowel Sounds).
 
Advanced Learning
 
Listening Comprehension / Direct and Indirect Speech.
 
Figures of Speech.
 
Effective Communication.
 
Writing Skills.
 
Effective Writing. Interview
 
Handling Skills.
 
E-Mail etiquette.
 
Presentation Skills.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17
 
 
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Edition)
 
Basic communication skills for Technology, Andreja. J. Ruther Ford, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2011.
 
Communication skills, Sanjay Kumar, Pushpalata, 1stEdition, Oxford Press, 2011.
Organizational Behavior, Stephen .P. Robbins, 1stEdition, Pearson, 2013.
Brilliant- Communication skills, Gill Hasson, 1stEdition, Pearson Life, 2011.
The Ace of Soft Skills: Attitude, Communication and Etiquette for success, Gopala Swamy Ramesh, 5thEdition, Pearson, 2013.
 
Developing your influencing skills, Deborah Dalley, Lois Burton, Margaret, Green hall, 1st Edition Universe of Learning LTD, 2010.
 
7.Communication skills for professionals, Konar N ira, 2ndEdition, New arrivals – PHI, 2011.
 
Personality development and soft skills, Barun K Mitra, 1stEdition, Oxford Press, 2011.
Soft skill for everyone, Butter Field, 1st Edition, Cengage Learning india pvt.ltd, 2011.
 
Soft skills and professional communication, Francis Peters SJ, 1stEdition, Mc Graw Hill Education, 2011.
 
Effective communication, John Adair, 4thEdition, Pan Mac Millan,2009.
Bringing out the best in people, Aubrey Daniels, 2ndEdition, Mc Graw Hill, 1999.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18
 
 
BP 106RBT. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY (Theory)
 
30 Hours
 
Scope: To learn and understand the components of living world, structure and functional system of plant and animal kingdom.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able to
 
Know the classification and salient features of five kingdoms of life
 
Understand the basic components of anatomy & physiology of plant
 
Know understand the basic components of anatomy & physiology animal with special reference to human
 
Course content:
 
Unit I 07 Hours Living world:
 
Definition and characters of living organisms
 
Diversity in the living world
 
Binomial nomenclature
 
Five kingdoms of life and basis of classification. Salient features of Monera,
 
 
Morphology of different parts of flowering plants – Root, stem, inflorescence, flower, leaf, fruit, seed.
 
General Anatomy of Root, stem, leaf of monocotyledons & Dicotylidones.
 
 
Unit II
Body fluids and circulation
 
•Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood
 
•Composition and functions of lymph
 
•Human circulatory system
 
 
07 Hours
 
 
•Structure of human heart and blood vessels
•Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and ECG
 
Human alimentary canal and digestive glands
 
Role of digestive enzymes
 
Digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food
Breathing and respiration
 
Human respiratory system
 
Mechanism of breathing and its regulation
 
Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration
 
Respiratory volumes
 
 
 
 
 
 
19
 
 
Unit III07 Hours
Excretory products and their elimination
 
•Modes of excretion
 
•Human excretory system- structure and function
 
•Urine formation
 
•Rennin angiotensin system
 
Definition and classification of nervous system
 
Structure of a neuron
 
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
 
Structure of brain and spinal cord
 
Functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata
Chemical coordination and regulation
 
Endocrine glands and their secretions
Functions of hormones secreted by endocrine glands
 
Human reproduction
 
•Parts of female reproductive system
 
•Parts of male reproductive system
 
•Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
 
•Menstrual cycle
 
 
Unit IV
Plants and mineral nutrition:
 
 
05 Hours
 
 
Essential mineral, macro and micronutrients
Nitrogen metabolism, Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
 
Photosynthesis
 
Autotrophic nutrition, photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigments, Factors affecting photosynthesis.
 
 
Unit V
 
 
04 Hours
 
 
Plant respiration:
 
 
Respiration, glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic).
 
 
Plant growth and development
 
 
Phases and rate of plant growth, Condition of growth, Introduction to plant growth
regulators
 
Structure and functions of cell and cell organelles. Cell division
Tissues
 
Definition, types of tissues, location and functions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20
 
 
Text Books
Text book of Biology by S. B. Gokhale
A Text book of Biology by Dr. Thulajappa and Dr. Seetaram.
 
Reference Books
 
A Text book of Biology by B.V. Sreenivasa Naidu
A Text book of Biology by Naidu and Murthy
Botany for Degree Students By A.C.Dutta.
Outlines of Zoology by M. Ekambaranatha Ayyer and T. N. Ananthakrishnan.
 
A Manual for Pharmaceutical Biology Practical by S.B. Gokhale and C. K. Kokate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21
 
 
 
BP112RBP. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY (Practical)
 
30 Hours
 
Introduction to experiments in biology
 
Study of Microscope.
 
Section cutting techniques.
 
Mounting and staining.
 
Permanent slide preparation.
 
Study of cell and its inclusions.
 
Study of Stem, Root, Leaf, seed, fruit, flower and their modifications.
 
Detailed study of frog by using computer models.
 
Microscopic study and identification of tissues pertinent to Stem, Root. Leaf, seed, fruit and flower
 
Identification of bones.
 
Determination of blood group.
 
Determination of blood pressure.
 
Determination of tidal volume.
 
 
Reference Books
 
Practical Human Anatomy and Physiology. by S.R. Kale and R.R. Kale.
 
A Manual of Pharmaceutical Biology Practical by S.B. Gokhale, C.K. Kokate and S.P. Shriwastava.
 
Biology Practical Manual According to National Core Curriculum .Biology Forum of Karnataka. Prof. M.J.H. Shafi.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22
 
 
 
BP 106RMT. REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS (Theory)
 
30 Hours
 
Scope: This is an introductory course in mathematics. This subject deals with the introduction to Partial fraction, Logarithm, matrices and Determinant, Analytical geometry, Calculus, differential equation and Laplace transform.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:-
 
Know the theory and their application in Pharmacy.
 
Solve the different types of problems by applying theory.
 
Appreciate the important application of mathematics in Pharmacy.
 
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I06 Hours
 
Partial fraction: Introduction, Polynomial, Rational fractions, Proper and Improper
 
fractions, Partial fraction, Resolving into Partial fraction, Application of Partial Fraction in Chemical Kinetics and Pharmacokinetics.
 
Logarithms: Introduction, Definition, Theorems/Properties of logarithms, Common logarithms, Characteristic and Mantissa, worked examples, application of logarithm to solve pharmaceutical problems.
 
Function: Real Valued function, Classification of real valued functions,
 
Limits and continuity: Introduction , Limit of a function, Definition of limit of a function (∈ - δ
 
nnθ
definition) , limx−a= na n−1  ,   lims in= 1,
x→ax − aθ→0   θ
06 Hours
Unit II
 
Matrices and Determinant:
 
Introduction matrices, Types of matrices, Operation on matrices, Transpose of a matrix, Matrix Multiplication, Determinants, Properties of determinants, Product of determinants, Minors and co-Factors, Adjoint or adjugate of a square matrix, Singular and non-singular matrices, Inverse of a matrix, Solution of system of linear of equations using matrix method, Cramer’s rule, Characteristic equation and roots of a square matrix, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Application of Matrices in solving Pharmacokinetic equations.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23
 
 
 
Unit III06 Hours
 
Calculus
 
Differentiation : Introductions, Derivative of a function, Derivative of a constant, Derivative of a product of a constant and a function , Derivative of the sum or
 
differenceof two functions,Derivative of theproduct of twofunctions (product
formula),Derivative of the quotient of two functions (Quotient formula) – Without
Proof,Derivative of xn w.r.tx, where n is any rationalnumber,Derivative of ex,,
Derivativeof loge x , Derivativeof ax, Derivative  oftrigonometric  functions  from
firstprinciples (without Proof),SuccessiveDifferentiation,Conditions for  a
function tobe  a maximum or a minimum at a point. Application.
Unit IV06 Hours
 
Analytical Geometry
 
Introduction: Signs of the Coordinates, Distance formula,
 
Straight Line: Slope or gradient of a straight line, Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of two lines, Slope of a line joining two points, Slope – intercept form of a straight line.
Integration: Introduction, Definition, Standard formulae, Rules of integration , Method of substitution, Method of Partial fractions, Integration by parts, definite integrals, application.
 
Unit V06 Hours
Differential Equations: Some  basic  definitions,  Order  and  degree, Equations in
 
separable form , Homogeneous equations, Linear Differential equations, Exact equations, Application in solving Pharmacokinetic equations.
Laplace Transform : Introduction, Definition, Properties of Laplace transform, Laplace Transforms of elementary functions, Inverse Laplace transforms, Laplace transform of derivatives, Application to solve Linear differential equations, Application in solving chemical kinetics and Pharmacokinetics equations.
 
Recommended Books (Latest Edition)
 
Differential Calculus by Shanthinarayan.
 
Pharmaceutical Mathematics with application to Pharmacy by Panchaksharappa Gowda D.H.
Integral Calculus by Shanthinarayan.
 
Higher Engineering Mathematics by Dr. B.S. Grewal.
 
 
 
 
 
 
24
 
 
BP 201T. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-II (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the various systems of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostatic mechanisms. The subject provides the basic knowledge required to understand the various disciplines of pharmacy.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to:
 
Explain the gross morphology, structure and functions of various organs of the human body.
 
Describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances.
 
Identify the various tissues and organs of different systems of human body.
 
Perform the hematological tests like blood cell counts, haemoglobin estimation, bleeding/clotting time etc and also record blood pressure, heart rate, pulse and respiratory volume.
Appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system
 
Appreciate the interlinked mechanisms in the maintenance of normal functioning (homeostasis) of human body.
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 hours
 
Nervous system
 
Organization of nervous system, neuron, neuroglia, classification and properties of nerve fibre, electrophysiology, action potential, nerve impulse, receptors, synapse, neurotransmitters.
 
Central nervous system: Meninges, ventricles of brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Structure and functions of brain (cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum), spinal cord (gross structure, functions of afferent and efferent nerve tracts, reflex activity).
 
 
Unit II06 hours
 
Digestive system
 
Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of stomach, (Acid production in the stomach, regulation of acid production through parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin role in protein digestion) small intestine and large intestine, anatomy and functions of salivary glands, pancreas and liver, movements of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients and disorders of GIT.
 
Energetics
 
Formation and role of ATP, Creatinine Phosphate and BMR.
 
 
25
 
 
Unit III
 
•Respiratory system 10 hours Anatomy of respiratory system with special reference to anatomy of lungs, mechanism of respiration, regulation of respiration.
 
Lung Volumes and capacities transport of respiratory gases, artificial respiration, and resuscitation methods.
 
Urinary system
 
Anatomy of urinary tract with special reference to anatomy of kidney and nephrons, functions of kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation, micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid base balance, role of RAS in kidney
 
and disorders of kidney.
 
Unit IV10 hours
 
Endocrine system
 
Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone action, structure and functions of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus and their disorders.
 
Unit V09 hours
 
Reproductive system
 
Anatomy of male and female reproductive system, Functions of male and female reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation, fertilization, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy and parturition
Introduction to genetics
 
Chromosomes, genes and DNA, protein synthesis, genetic pattern of inheritance.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26
 
 
BP 207 P. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (Practical)
 
4 Hours/week
 
Practical physiology is complimentary to the theoretical discussions in physiology. Practicals allow the verification of physiological processes discussed in theory classes through experiments on living tissue, intact animals or normal human beings. This is helpful for developing an insight on the subject.
 
To study the integumentary and special senses using specimen, models, etc.
To study the nervous system using specimen, models, etc.
To study the endocrine system using specimen, models, etc.
To demonstrate the general neurological examination.
To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve.
To examine the different types of taste.
To demonstrate the visual acuity.
To demonstrate the reflex activity.
Recording of body temperature.
To demonstrate positive and negative feedback mechanism.
Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.
Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.
Recording of basal mass index.
Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.
Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyzer.
Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads.
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Essentials of Medical Physiology by K. Sembulingam and P. Sembulingam. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness by Kathleen J.W. Wilson, Churchil Livingstone, New York.
 
Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co., Riverview, MI, USA.
 
Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
 
Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora Grabowski. Palmetto, GA, U.S.A.
 
Textbook of Human Histology by Inderbir Singh, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Textbook of Practical Physiology by C.L. Ghai, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Practical Workbook of Human Physiology by K. Srinageswari and Rajeev Sharma, Jaypee Brother’s Medical Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Dipiro J.L., Pharmacotherapy- A Pathophysiological Approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
 
Chaurasia B.D, Human Anatomy, Regional & Applied Part I, II & III, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
 
 
27
 
 
Ross and Wilson, Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, Churchill Livingstone, London.
 
Seeley R.R., Stephens T.D. and Tate, P. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw-Hill, New York.
 
Reference Books:
 
Physiological Basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI, USA.
 
Text Book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.
Human Physiology (Vol 1 and 2) by Dr. C.C. Chatterrje, Academic Publishers Kolkata.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28
 
 
BP202T. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –I (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject deals with classification and nomenclature of simple organic compounds, structural isomerism, intermediates forming in reactions, important physical properties, reactions and methods of preparation of these compounds. The syllabus also emphasizes on mechanisms and orientation of reactions.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
 
Write the structure, name and the type of isomerism of the organic compound.
 
Write the reaction, name the reaction and orientation of reactions.
 
Account for reactivity/stability of compounds.
 
Identify/confirm the identification of organic compound.
 
 
Course Content:
 
General methods of preparation and reactions of compounds superscripted with asterisk (*)
 
to be explained.
 
To emphasize on definition, types, classification, principles/mechanisms, applications,
 
examples and differences.
 
 
 
Unit-I
 
 
 
07 Hours
 
 
Classification, nomenclature and isomerism Classification of Organic Compounds
 
Common and IUPAC systems of nomenclature of organic compounds (up to 10 Carbons open chain and carbocyclic compounds) Structural isomerisms in organic compounds
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Alkanes*, Alkenes* and Conjugated dienes*
 
SP3 hybridization in alkanes, Halogenation of alkanes, uses of paraffins.
Stabilities of alkenes, SP2 hybridization in alkenes.
E1 and E2 reactions – Kinetics, order of reactivity of alkyl halides, rearrangement of carbocations, Saytzeffs orientation and evidences. E1 verses E2 reactions, Factors affecting E1 and E2 reactions. Ozonolysis, electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes, Markownikoff’s orientation, free radical addition reactions of alkenes, Anti Markownikoff’s orientation.
 
Stability of conjugated dienes, Diel-Alder, electrophilic addition, free radical addition reactions of conjugated dienes, allylic rearrangement.
 
 
Unit III
 
 
10 Hours
 
 
•Alkyl halides*
 
 
SN1  and SN2
 
 
reactions - kinetics, order of reactivity of alkyl halides, stereochemistry and
 
 
rearrangement of carbocations. SN1 versus SN2 reactions, Factors affecting SN1 and SN2 reactions.
 
29
 
 
Structure and uses of ethylchloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and iodoform.
 
Alcohols*- Qualitative tests, Structure and uses of Ethyl alcohol, Methyl alcohol, chlorobutanol, Cetosteryl alcohol, Benzyl alcohol, Glycerol, Propylene glycol.
 
Unit IV10 Hours
 
Carbonyl compounds* (Aldehydes and ketones)
 
Nucleophilic addition, Electromeric effect, aldol condensation, Crossed Aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Crossed Cannizzaro reaction, Benzoin condensation, Perkin condensation, qualitative tests, Structure and uses of Formaldehyde, Paraldehyde, Acetone, Chloral hydrate, Hexamine, Benzaldehyde, Vanilin, Cinnamaldehyde.
 
Unit V08 Hours
 
Carboxylic acids*
 
Acidity of carbox ylic acids, effect of substituents on acidity, inductive effect and qualitative tests for carboxylic acids ,amide and ester
 
Structure and Uses of Acetic acid, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, Citric acid, Succinic acid. Oxalic acid, Salicylic acid, Benzoic acid, Benzyl benzoate, Dimethyl phthalate, Methyl salicylate and Acetyl salicylic acid
 
Aliphatic amines* - Basicity, effect of substituent on Basicity. Qualitative test, Structure and uses of Ethanolamine, Ethylenediamine, Amphetamine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30
 
 
 
BP208P. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -I (Practical)
 
4 Hours / week
 
Systematic qualitative analysis of unknown organic compounds like
Preliminary test: Color, odour, aliphatic/aromatic compounds, saturation and unsaturation, etc.
Detection of elements like Nitrogen, Sulphur and Halogen by Lassaigne’s test
Solubility test
Functional group test like Phenols, Amides/ Urea, Carbohydrates, Amines, Carboxylic acids, Aldehydes and Ketones, Alcohols, Esters, Aromatic and Halogenated Hydrocarbons, Nitro compounds and Anilides.
Melting point/Boiling point of organic compounds
Identification of the unknown compound from the literature using melting point/ boiling point.
Preparation of the derivatives and confirmation of the unknown compound by melting point/ boiling point.
Minimum 5 unknown organic compounds to be analyzed systematically.
Preparation of suitable solid derivatives from organic compounds.
Construction of molecular models.
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Organic Chemistry by Morrison R.T., Boyd R.N. and Bhattacharjee, S.K. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education Ltd.), New Delhi
 
Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar , Volume-I, Pearson Education Ltd, New Delhi.
 
Textbook of Organic Chemistry by B.S. Bahl & Arun Bahl.
 
Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann and Saunders.
 
Vogel’s Text book of Practical Organic Chemistry
 
Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.
 
Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques by Pavia, Lampman and Kriz.
 
Reaction and Reaction Mechanism by Ahluwaliah/Chatwal.
 
A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry- by Sykes P., Longman Group Ltd, London.
 
Organic Chemistry- by Jain M.K., Sohan Lal Nagin Chand & Co, New Delhi.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31
 
 
 
BP203 T. BIOCHEMISTRY (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: Biochemistry deals with complete understanding of the molecular levels of the chemical process associated with living cells. The scope of the subject is providing biochemical facts and the principles to understand metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also emphasizing on genetic organization of mammalian genome and hetero & autocatalytic functions of DNA.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of course student shell able to
 
Understand the catalytic role of enzymes, importance of enzyme inhibitors in design of new drugs, therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes.
 
Understand the metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions.
 
Understand the genetic organization of mammalian genome and functions of DNA in the synthesis of RNAs and proteins.
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I08 Hours
 
Biomolecules
 
Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.
 
Bioenergetics
 
Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthalpy and entropy; Redox potential.
 
Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Carbohydrate metabolism
 
Glycolysis- Pathway, energetics and significance.
 
Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance.
 
HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
 
Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD) Gluconeogenesis-Pathway and its significance.
 
Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus.
 
Biological oxidation
 
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
 
Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level phosphorylation.
 
Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers.
 
32
 
 
Unit III10 Hours
 
Lipid metabolism
 
β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid). Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis. De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid).
 
Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormone and vitamin D.
 
Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.
 
Amino acid metabolism
 
General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle and its disorders.
 
Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenyketonuria, Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia).
 
Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline.
 
Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice.
 
Unit IV10 Hours
 
Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
 
Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease. Organization of mammalian genome.
 
Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions DNA replication (semi conservative model) Transcription or RNA synthesis.
 
Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Enzymes
 
Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes. Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot) Enzyme inhibitors with examples.
Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation.
 
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes. Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
33
 
 
 
BP 209 P. BIOCHEMISTRY (Practical)
 
4 Hours / Week
 
 
Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates (Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose and starch).
 
Identification tests for Proteins (Albumin and Casein).
 
Quantitative analysis of reducing sugars (DNSA method) and Proteins (Biuret method).
 
Qualitative analysis of urine for abnormal constituents.
 
Determination of blood creatinine.
 
Determination of blood sugar.
 
Determination of serum total cholesterol.
 
Preparation of buffer solution and measurement of pH.
 
Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch.
 
Determination of Salivary amylase activity.
 
Study the effect of Temperature on Salivary amylase activity.
 
Study the effect of substrate concentration on salivary amylase activity.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
34
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry- by Murray R.K. and Granner D.K.,, Lange Medical Publication.
 
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry- by Nelson D.L. and Cox M.M., Macmillan Worth Publishers.
 
Fundamentals of Biochemistry- by Voet D., Voet J.G., Pratt C.W., John Wiley and Sons Inc.
 
Lippincott’s Illustrative Reviews: Biochemistry- by Champe P.C., Harvey
 
R.A., Ferrier D.R.,Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
 
5. Principles  and  Techniques  of  Biochemistry  and  Molecular  Biology-
 
by Wilson K. and Walker J. , Cambridge University Press.
 
6.Bioorganic Chemistry: A Chemical Approach to Enzyme Action- by Dugas H. 3rd Edition, Springer (India) Private Limited, New Delhi.
 
Molecular Cell Biology- by Lodish H., Berk A., Matsudiaira P., Kaiser C.A., Krieger M. and Scott M.P., W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.
Introduction of Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer. (3rd Edition), Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi.
 
Practical Biochemistry by Harold Varley. CBS Publishers and Distributors. New Delhi.
 
Practical Biochemistry for Medical students by Rajagopal and Ramakrishna.
 
Conn E.E. and Stumph P.K., Outline of Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
 
Stryer L. and Berg J.M., Biochemistry, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
 
Harrow B. and Mazur A., Text book of Biochemistry, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
 
14. Jayaraman J., Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry, Wiley Eastern Limited. 15. Singh S.P., Practical Manual to Biochemistry, CBS Publisher, New Delhi.
 
Boyer R.F. Modern Experimental Biochemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
 
Comprehensive Viva and Practical Biochemistry- by Deb A.C., New Central Book Agency (P.) Ltd. London.
 
Vyas S.P. and Kohli D.V., Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, 1st Edition, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
35
 
 
 
BP 204T. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (THEORY)
 
45Hours
 
Scope: Pathophysiology is the study of causes of diseases and reactions of the body to such disease producing causes. This course is designed to impart a thorough knowledge of the relevant aspects of pathology of various conditions with reference to its pharmacological applications, and understanding of basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Hence it will not only help to study the syllabus of pathology, but also to get baseline knowledge required to practice medicine safely, confidently, rationally and effectively.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to –
 
Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of the selected disease states;
 
Name the signs and symptoms of the diseases; and
 
Mention the complications of the diseases.
 
Course content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Basic principles of Cell injury and Adaptation:
 
Introduction, definitions, Homeostasis, Components and Types of Feedback systems, Causes of cellular injury, Pathogenesis (Cell membrane damage, Mitochondrial damage, Ribosome damage, Nuclear damage), Morphology of cell injury – Adaptive changes (Atrophy, Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia), Cell swelling, Intra cellular accumulation, Calcification, Enzyme leakage and Cell Death Acidosis & Alkalosis, Electrolyte imbalance.
 
Basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
 
Introduction, Clinical signs of inflammation, Different types of Inflammation, Mechanism of Inflammation – Alteration in vascular permeability and blood flow,
 
migration of WBC’s, Mediators of inflammation, Basic principles of wound healing in the skin, Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis.
 
Unit II10Hours
 
Cardiovascular System:
 
Hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease (angina,myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis)
 
Respiratory system: Asthma, Chronic obstructive airways diseases.
 
Renal system: Acute and chronic renal failure.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
36
 
 
 
Unit III10Hours
 
 
Haematological Diseases:
 
Iron deficiency, megaloblastic anemia (Vit B12 and folic acid), sickle cell anemia, thalasemia, hereditary acquired anemia, hemophilia
 
Endocrine system: Diabetes, thyroid diseases, disorders of sex hormones.
 
Nervous system: Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, psychiatric disorders: depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Gastrointestinal system: Peptic Ulcer.
 
Unit IV8 Hours
 
Inflammatory bowel diseases, jaundice, hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,F) alcoholic liver disease.
Disease of bones and joints: Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout.
 
Principles of cancer: classification, etiology and pathogenesis of cancer.
 
Unit V7 Hours
 
Infectious diseases: Meningitis, Typhoid, Leprosy, Tuberculosis,Urinary tract infections
Sexually transmitted diseases: AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea.
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abas, Jon C. Aster; Robbins &Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease; South Asia edition; India; Elsevier; 2014.
Harsh Mohan; Text book of Pathology; 6th edition; India; Jaypee Publications; 2010.
 
Laurence B, Bruce C, Bjorn K. ; Goodman Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics; 12th edition; New York; McGraw-Hill; 2011.
 
Best, Charles Herbert 1899-1978; Taylor, Norman Burke 1885-1972; West, John B (John Burnard); Best and Taylor’s Physiological basis of medical practice; 12th ed; united states; William and Wilkins, Baltimore;1991 [1990 printing].
Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, Stuart H. Ralston;Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine; 21st edition; London; ELBS/Churchill Livingstone; 2010.
 
Guyton A, John .E Hall; Textbook of Medical Physiology; 12th edition; WB Saunders Company; 2010.
 
Joseph  DiPiro, Robert  L.  Talbert, Gary  Yee, Barbara  Wells, L.  Michael
 
Posey; Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach; 9th edition; London; McGraw-Hill Medical; 2014.
 
V. Kumar, R. S. Cotran and S. L. Robbins; Basic Pathology; 6th edition; Philadelphia; WB Saunders Company; 1997.
 
Roger Walker, Clive Edwards; Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics; 3rd edition; London; Churchill Livingstone Publication; 2003.
 
37
 
 
 
Recommended Journals
 
The Journal of Pathology. ISSN: 1096-9896 (Online).
 
The American Journal of Pathology. ISSN: 0002-9440.
 
Pathology. 1465-3931 (Online).
 
International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, ISSN: 1944- 8171,
 
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. ISSN-0377-4929.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
38
 
 
 
BP205 T. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Theory)
 
30 Hrs (2 Hrs/Week)
 
Scope: This subject deals with the introduction Database, Database Management system, computer application in clinical studies and use of databases.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
 
Know the various types of application of computers in pharmacy.
 
Know the various types of databases.
 
Know the various applications of databases in pharmacy.
 
 
Course content:
 
Unit I06 hours
Number system: Binary number system, Decimal number system, Octal number system, Hexadecimal number systems, conversion decimal to binary, binary to decimal, octal to binary etc, binary addition, binary subtraction – One’s complement ,Two’s complement method, binary multiplication, binary division
 
Concept of Information Systems and Software : Information gathering, requirement
design,
and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output
process life cycle, planning and managing the project06 hours
Unit II
 
Web technologies: Introduction to HTML, XML,CSS and Programming languages, introduction to web servers and Server Products.
 
Introduction to databases, MYSQL, MS ACCESS, Pharmacy Drug database.
 
 
Unit III06 hours
Application of computers in Pharmacy – Drug information storage and retrieval, Pharmacokinetics, Mathematical model in Drug design, Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy, Electronic Prescribing and discharge (EP) systems, barcode medicine identification and automated dispensing of drugs, mobile technology and adherence monitoring
 
Diagnostic S ystem, Lab-diagnostic System, Patient Monitoring System, Pharma Information System.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
39
 
 
 
Unit IV06 hours
Bioinformatics: Introduction, Objective of Bioinformatics, Bioinformatics
Databases, Concept of Bioinformatics, Impact of Bioinformatics in Vaccine
Discovery.
Unit V06 hours
Computers as data analysis in Preclinical development: Chromatographic dada analysis (CDS), Laboratory Information management System (LIMS) and Text Information Management System (TIMS)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
40
 
 
 
BP210P. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Practical)
 
 
Design a questionnaire using a word processing package to gather information about a particular disease.
Create a HTML web page to show personal information.
Retrieve the information of a drug and its adverse effects using online tools
Creating mailing labels Using Label Wizard, generating label in MS WORD
Create a database in MS Access to store the patient information with the required fields Using access
 
Design a form in MS Access to view, add, delete and modify the patient record in the database
 
Generating report and printing the report from patient database
Creating invoice table using – MS Access
Drug information storage and retrieval using MS Access
Creating and working with queries in MS Access
Exporting Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports to web pages
Exporting Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports to XML pages
 
Recommended books (Latest edition):
 
Computer Application in Pharmacy – William E.Fassett –Lea and Febiger, 600 South Washington Square, USA, (215) 922-1330.
 
Computer Application in Pharmaceutical Research and Development –Sean Ekins – Wiley-Interscience, A John Willey and Sons, INC., Publication, USA.
 
Bioinformatics (Concept, Skills and Applications) – S.C.Rastogi-CBS Publishers and Distributors, 4596/1- A, 11 Darya Gani, New Delhi – 110 002(INDIA).
 
Microsoft office Access - 2003, Application Development Using VBA, SQL Server, DAP and Infopath – Cary N. Prague – Wiley Dreamtech India (P) Ltd., 4435/7, Ansari Road, Daryagani, New Delhi - 110002.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
41
 
 
 
BP 206 T. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (Theory)
 
30 hours
 
Scope: Environmental Sciences is the scientific study of the environmental system and the status of its inherent or induced changes on organisms. It includes not only the study of physical and biological characters of the environment but also the social and cultural factors and the impact of man on environment.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:
 
Create the awareness about environmental problems among learners.
 
Impart basic knowledge about the environment and its allied problems.
 
Develop an attitude of concern for the environment.
Motivate learner to participate in environment protection and environment improvement.
 
Acquire skills to help the concerned individuals in identifying and solving environmental problems.
Strive to attain harmony with Nature.
 
Course content:
 
Unit I10hours
 
The multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies.
 
Natural Resources
 
Renewable and non-renewable resources:
 
Natural resources and associated problems
 
Forest resources; b) Water resources; c) Mineral resources; d) Food resources; e) Energy resources; f) Land resources: Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.
 
Unit II10hours
 
Ecosystems
 
Concept of an ecosystem.
 
Structure and function of an ecosystem.
 
Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the ecosystems: Forest ecosystem; Grassland ecosystem; Desert ecosystem; Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
 
Unit III10hours
 
Environmental Pollution: Air pollution; Water pollution; Soil pollution
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
42
 
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest edition):
 
Singh, Y.K. Environmental Science, New Age International Pvt, Publishers, Bangalore
 
Agarwal, K.C. 2001 Environmental Biology, Nidi Publ. Ltd. Bikaner.
Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Pu blishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad – 380 013, India,
 
Brunner R.C., 1989, Hazardous Waste Incineration, McGraw Hill Inc. 480p
Clark R.S., Marine Pollution, Clanderson Press Oxford
Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, E & Hepworth, M.T. 2001, Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ. House, Mumbai, 1196p
De A.K., Environmental Chemistry, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
 
Down of Earth, Centre for Science and Environment.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
43
 
 
 
 
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.)
 
COURSE OF STUDY & SCHEME OF EVALUATION FOR INTERNAL AND END SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS
 
(W.E.F. Session 2019-20)
 
THIRD SEMESTER
 
CourseNo.ofInternal AssessmentEnd Semester ExamsTotalTuto-Credit
Name of the CourseHours/
ContinuousSessional Exams
CodeTotalMarksDurationMarksrialPoints
wk
ModeMarksDuration
BP301TPharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II –310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
Theory
BP302TPhysical Pharmaceutics I – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP303TPharmaceutical Microbiology – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP304TPharmaceutical Engineering – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP305PPharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II –45104 Hr15354 Hrs50-2
Practical
BP306PPhysical Pharmaceutics I – Practical45104 Hr15354 Hrs50-2
BP307PPharmaceuticalMicrobiology–45104 Hr15354 Hrs50-2
Practical
BP 308PPharmaceutical Engineering –Practical45104 Hr15354 Hrs50-2
KVE301Universal   Human   Valuesand
Professional Ethics320301 Hr501003 Hrs150-3
Total31801302921054031 Hrs750427
 
*Human values & Professional Ethics will be offered as a compulsory course for which passing marks shall be 30% in End Semester Examination and 40% in aggregate.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FOURTH SEMESTER
 
 
CourseNo.ofInternal AssessmentEnd Semester ExamsTotalTuto-Credit
Name of the CourseHours/
ContinuousSessional Exams
CodeTotalMarksDurationMarksrialPoints
wkModeMarksDuration
BP401TPharmaceutical Organic Chemistry III310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
– Theory
BP402TMedicinal Chemistry I – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP403TPhysical Pharmaceutics II – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP404TPharmacology I – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP405TPharmacognosy I – Theory310151 Hr25753 Hrs10014
BP406PMedicinal Chemistry I – Practical45104 Hr15354 Hrs50-2
BP407PPhysical Pharmaceutics II – Practical45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
BP408PPharmacology I – Practical45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
BP409PPharmacognosy I – Practical45104 Hrs15354 Hrs50-2
Total317011521 Hrs18551531 Hrs700528
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEMESTER III
 
10 Hours
BP301T. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –II (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject deals with general methods of preparation and reactions of some organic compounds. Reactivity of organic compounds are also studied here. The syllabus emphasizes on mechanisms and orientation of reactions. Chemistry of fats and oils are also included in the syllabus.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
 
Write the structure, name and the type of isomerism of the organic compound
 
Write the reaction, name the reaction and orientation of reactions
 
Account for reactivity/stability of compounds,
 
Prepare organic compounds.
 
Course Content:
 
General methods of preparation and reactions of compounds superscripted with asterisk (*) to be explained.
 
To emphasize on definition, types, classification, principles/mechanisms, applications, examples and differences
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Benzene and its derivatives
 
Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene, Orbital picture, resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule
Reactions of benzene - nitration, sulphonation, halogenation- reactivity, Friedelcrafts alkylation-reactivity, limitations, Friedelcrafts acylation.
 
Substituents, effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation of mono substituted benzene compounds towards electrophilic substitution reaction.
Structure and uses of DDT, Saccharin, BHC and Chloramine.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Phenols* - Acidity of phenols, effect of substituents on acidity, qualitative tests, Structure and uses of phenol, cresols, resorcinol, naphthols
 
Aromatic Amines* - Basicity of amines, effect of substituents on basicity, and synthetic uses of aryl diazonium salts
 
 Aromatic Acids*– Acidity, effect of substituents on aci di t y and import ant r ea cti ons
 
o f benzoic ac i d.
 
Unit III
 
Fats and oils
 
Fatty acids – reactions.
 
Hydrolysis, Hydrogenation, Saponification and Rancidity of oils, Drying oils.
 
Analytical constants– Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Iodine value, Acetyl value, Reichert Meissl (RM) value– significance and principle involved in their
 
determination.
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Polynuclear hydrocarbons:
 
Synthesis, reactions
 
Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Diphenylmethane, Triphenylmethane and their derivatives.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Cycloalkanes*
 
Stabilities – Baeyer’s strain theory, limitation of Baeyer’s strain theory, Coulson and Moffitt’s modification, Sachse Mohr’s theory (Theory of strainless rings), reactions of cyclopropane and cyclobutane only.
 
BP305P. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -II (Practical)
 
4 Hrs/week
 
Experiments involving laboratory techniques Recrystallization
Steam distillation
 
IIDetermination  of  following  oilvalues  (including  standardization  of reagents)
 
Acid value
 
Saponification value Iodine value
Preparation of compounds
 
Benzanilide/Phenyl benzoate/Acetanilide from Aniline/ Phenol /Aniline by acylation reaction.
 
2,4,6-Tribromo aniline/Para bromo acetanilide from Aniline/ Acetanilide by halogenation (Bromination) reaction.
 
5-Nitro salicylic acid/Meta di nitro benzene from Salicylic acid / Nitro benzene by nitration reaction.
 
Benzoic acid from Benzyl chloride by oxidation reaction.
 
Benzoic acid/ Salicylic acid from alkyl benzoate/ alkyl salicylate by hydrolysis reaction.
 
1-Phenyl azo-2-napthol from Aniline by diazotization and coupling reactions.
 
Benzil from Benzoin by oxidation reaction.
 
Dibenzal acetone from Benzaldehyde by Claison Schmidt reaction Cinnammic acid from Benzaldehyde by Perkin reaction
P-Iodo benzoic acid from P-amino benzoic acid
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Organic Chemistry by Morrison R.T., Boyd R.N. and Bhattacharjee, S.K. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education Ltd.), New Delhi
 
Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar , Volume-I, Pearson Education Ltd, New Delhi.
 
Textbook of Organic Chemistry by B.S. Bahl & Arun Bahl.
 
Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann and Saunders.
 
Vogel’s Text book of Practical Organic Chemistry
 
Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.
 
Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques by Pavia, Lampman and Kriz.
 
Reaction and Reaction Mechanism by Ahluwaliah/Chatwal.
 
A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry- by Sykes P., Longman Group Ltd, London.
 
Organic Chemistry- by Jain M.K., Sohan Lal Nagin Chand & Co, New Delhi.
 
Organic Chemistry by P.L.Soni.
 
Advanced Practical organic chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.
 
BP302T. PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS-I (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: The course deals with the various physica and physicochemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.
 
Objectives: Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to
 
Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms.
 
Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing and determination of expiry date of formulations.
 
Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation.
 
development and evaluation of dosage forms.
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent interactions, ideal solubility parameters, solvation & association, quantitative approach to the factors
influencing solubility of  drugs,  diffusionprinciples in biological systems. Solubility
of gas in liquids,solubility of liquids inliquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions)
Raoult’s law, realsolutions. Partially miscible liquids, Critical solution temperature and
applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications.
Unit II10 Hours
 
States of Matter and properties of matter: State of matter, changes in the state of matter, latent heats, vapor pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols
– inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states, solid-crystalline, amorphous & polymorphism.
 
Physicochemical properties of drug molecules: Refractive index, optical rotation, dielectric constant, dipole moment, dissociation constant, determinations and applications.
 
Unit III08 Hours
 
Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient,
 
adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB Scale, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interface.
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Complexation and protein binding: Introduction, Classification of Complexation, Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action, crystalline structures of complexes and thermodynamic treatment of stability constants.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
pH, buffers and Isotonic solutions: Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination (electrometric and calorimetric), applications of buffers, buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic solutions.
 
BP306P. PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS – I (Practical)
 
4 Hrs/week
 
Determination the solubility of drug at room temperature.
 
Determination of pKa value by Half Neutralization/ Henderson Hasselbalch equation.
 
Determination of Partition co- efficient of benzoic acid in benzene and water.
 
Determination of Partition co- efficient of Iodine in CCl4 and water.
 
Determination of % composition of NaCl in a solution using phenol-water system by CST method.
 
Determination of surface tension of given liquids by drop count and drop weight method.
 
Determination of HLB number of a surfactant by saponification method.
 
Determination of Freundlich and Langmuir constants using activated char coal.
 
Determination of critical micellar concentration of surfactants.
 
Determination of stability constant and donor acceptor ratio of PABA-Caffeine complex by solubility method.
 
Determination of stability constant and donor acceptor ratio of Cupric-Glycine complex by pH titration method.
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin.
 
Experimental Pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.
 
Tutorial Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
 
Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical Calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
 
Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to 3, MarcelDekkar Inc.
 
Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms. Disperse systems, volume 1, 2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.
 
Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C and ManavalanR.
 
Laboratory Manual of Physical Pharmaceutics, C.V.S. Subramanyam, J. Thimma settee.
 
Physical Pharmaceutics by C.V.S. Subramanyam.
 
Test book of Physical Phramacy, by Gaurav Jain & Roop K. Khar.
 
Physical Pharmaceutics- by Shotten E & Ridgeway K, Oxford University Press, London.
 
Essentials of Physical Pharmacy- by D.V. Derle.
 
Modern Pharmaceutics, Banker and Rhodes.
 
Pharmaceutics- by Aulton, M.E, The Design and Manufacture Of Medicines, Churchill Livingstone.
 
Hajare, A. Physical Pharmacy, New Central Book Agency Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata.
 
BP 303 T. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Study of all categories of microorganisims especially for the production of alcohol antibiotics, vaccines, vitamins enzymes etc.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to;
 
Understand methods of identification, cultivation and preservation of various microorganisms
 
To understand the importance and implementation of sterlization
 
in pharmaceutical processing and industry
 
Learn sterility testing of pharmaceutical products.
 
Carried out microbiological standardization of Pharmaceuticals.
 
Understand the cell culture technology and its applications in pharmaceutical industries.
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Introduction,history  ofmicrobiology,itsbranches,scopeandits importance.
 
Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
 
Study of ultra-structure and morphological classification of bacteria, nutritional requirements, raw materials used for culture media and physical parameters for growth, growth curve, isolation and preservation methods for pure cultures, cultivation of anaerobes, quantitative measurement of bacterial growth (total & viable count).
 
 
Study  of  different  types
 
 
of
 
 
phase
 
 
contrast
 
 
microscopy,
 
 
dark
 
 
field microscopy
 
 
and electron microscopy.
 
 
Unit II
 
 
10 Hours
 
 
Identification of bacteria using staining techniques (simple, Gram’s &Acid fast staining) and biochemical tests (IMViC).
 
Study of principle, procedure, merits, demerits and applications of physical, chemical gaseous, radiation and mechanical method of sterilization. Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization methods.
 
Equipments employed in large scale sterilization. Sterility indicators.
 
 
 
Unit III
 
Studyofmorphology,classification,reproduction/replication
 
of Fungi and Viruses.
 
Classification and mode of action of disinfectants
 
Factors  influencing disinfection,  antiseptics and  their evaluation.
 
 
 
10 Hours and cultivation
 
 
For bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions.
 
Evaluation of bactericidal & Bacteriostatic.
 
Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products) according to IP, BP and USP.
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipments; study of different sources of contamination in an aseptic area and methods of prevention, clean area classification.
 
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay. Methods for standardization of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids. Assessment of a new antibiotic.
 
UnitV07 Hours
 
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products, sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage.
 
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of microbial stability of formulations.
 
Growth of animal cells in culture, general procedure for cell culture, Primary, established and transformed cell cultures.
 
Application of cell cultures in pharmaceutical industry and research.
 
BP 307P. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Practical)
 
4 Hrs/week
 
Introduction and study of different equipments and processing, e.g., B.O.D. incubator, laminar flow, aseptic hood, autoclave, hot air sterilizer, deep freezer, refrigerator, microscopes used in experimental microbiology.
 
Sterilization of glassware, preparation and sterilization of media.
 
Sub culturing of bacteria and fungus. Nutrient stabs and slants preparations.
 
Staining methods- Simple, Grams staining and acid fast staining (Demonstration with practical).
 
Isolation of pure culture of micro-organisms by multiple streak plate technique and other techniques.
 
Microbiological assay of antibiotics by cup plate method and other methods
 
Motility determination by Hanging drop method.
 
Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
 
Bacteriological analysis of water
 
Biochemical test.
 
Recommended Books (Latest edition)
 
W.B. Hugo and A.D. Russel: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford London.
 
Prescott and Dunn., Industrial Microbiology, 4th edition, CBS Publishers & Distributors, Delhi.
 
Pelczar, Chan Kreig, Microbiology, Tata McGraw Hill edn.
 
Malcolm Harris, Balliere Tindall and Cox: Pharmaceutical Microbiology.
 
Rose: Industrial Microbiology.
 
Probisher, Hinsdill et al: Fundamentals of Microbiology, 9th ed. Japan
 
Cooper and Gunn’s: Tutorial Pharmacy, CBS Publisher and Distribution.
 
Peppler: Microbial Technology.
 
I.P., B.P., U.S.P.- latest editions.
 
Ananthnarayan : Text Book of Microbiology, Orient-Longman, Chennai
 
Edward: Fundamentals of Microbiology.
 
N.K.Jain: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi
 
Bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology, Williams and Wilkins- A Waverly company.
 
Sykes G., Disinfection and Sterilization: Theory and Practice, General and Industrial Chemistry Seris, Spon.
 
Hugo and Russell, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Black Well Scientific Publication, Oxford.
 
Stanier R.Y., Ingraham, J.L., Wheelis M.L., Painter P.R. General Microbiology, Macmillan Press Limited.
 
BP 304 T. PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the art and
 
science of various unit operations used in pharmaceutical industry.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able:
 
To know various unit operations used in Pharmaceutical industries.
 
To understand the material handling techniques.
 
To perform various processes involved in pharmaceutical manufacturing process.
 
To carry out various test to prevent environmental pollution.
 
To appreciate and comprehend significance of plant lay out design for
 
optimum use of resources.
 
6.To appreciate the various preventive methods used for corrosion control in Pharmaceutical industries.
 
Course content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Flow of fluids: Types of manometers, Reynolds number and its significance, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications, Energy losses, Orifice meter, Venturimeter, Pitot tube and Rotometer.
 
Size Reduction: Objectives, Mechanisms & Laws governing size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill, Edge runner mill & end runner mill.
 
Size   Separation:  Objectives,   applications   &   mechanism   of   size
 
separation, official standards of powders, sieves, size separation Principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Sieve shaker, cyclone separator, Air separator, Bag filter & elutriation tank.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Heat Transfer: Objectives, applications & Heat transfer mechanisms. Fourier’s law, Heat transfer by conduction, convection & radiation. Heat interchangers & heat exchangers.
 
Evaporation: Objectives, applications and factors influencing evaporation, differences between evaporation and other heat process. principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Steam jacketed kettle,
 
horizontal tube evaporator, climbing film evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, multiple effect evaporator& Economy of multiple effect evaporator.
 
Distillation: Basic Principles and methodology of simple distillation,flash distillation, fractional distillation, distillation under reduced pressure, steam distillation & molecular distillation.
 
 
Unit III08 Hours
 
Drying: Objectives, applications & mechanism of drying process, measurements & applications of Equilibrium Moisture content, rate of drying curve. principles,
 
construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Tray dryer, drum dryer spray dryer, fluidized bed dryer, vacuum dryer, freeze dryer.
Mixing: Objectives, applications & factors affecting mixing, Difference between solid and liquid mixing, mechanism of solid mixing, liquids mixing and semisolids mixing. Principles, Construction, Working, uses, Merits and Demerits of Double cone blender, twin shell blender, ribbon blender, Sigma blade mixer, planetary mixers, Propellers, Turbines, Paddles & Silverson Emulsifier,
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Filtration: Objectives, applications, Theories & Factors influencing filtration, filter aids, filter medias. Principle, Construction, Working, Uses, Merits and demerits of plate & frame filter, filter leaf, rotary drum filter, Meta filter & Cartridge filter, membrane filters and Seidtz filter.
 
Centrifugation:Objectives,principle&applicationsof
Centrifugation, principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of
Perforated basket centrifuge, Non-perforated basket centrifuge, semi continuous
centrifuge & super centrifuge.
Unit V07 Hours
Materials  ofpharmaceuticalplant  construction,Corrosionand
its prevention: Factors affecting during materials selected for Pharmaceutical
plant construction,  Theories  of  corrosion,  types  of  corrosion  and  there
prevention. Ferrous  and  nonferrous  metals,  inorganicand  organicnon
metals, basic of material handling systems.
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Introduction to chemical engineering – Walter L Badger & Julius Banchero, Latest edition.
 
Solid phase extraction, principles, techniques and applications by Nigel J.K. Simpson- Latest edition.
 
Unit operation of chemical engineering – Mcabe Smith, Latest edition.
 
Pharmaceutical engineering principles and practices – C.V.S Subrahmanyam et al., Latest edition.
 
Remington practice of pharmacy- Martin, Latest edition.
 
Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy by Lachmann., Latest edition.
 
Physical pharmaceutics- C.V.S Subrahmanyam et al., Latest edition.
 
Cooper and Gunn’s Tutorial pharmacy, S.J. Carter, Latest edition.
 
BP308P - PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING (Practical)
 
 
4 Hours/week
 
Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
 
Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
 
To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by heat exchanger.
 
IV.Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
 
Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
 
VI.Determination of humidity of air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use
 
of Dew point method.
 
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill, de humidifier.
 
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations – Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic andlogarithmic probability plots.
 
IX.Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using ball mill and determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical speed of Ball Mill.
 
Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze
 
dryer and such othermajor equipment.
 
XI.Factors  affecting Rate  of  Filtration  and  Evaporation (Surface area,
 
Concentration and Thickness/ viscosity
 
XII.  To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
 
XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for given sample by using Double Cone Blender.
 
KVE401. UNIVERSAL HUMAN VALUES AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
 
30 Hours
 
UNIT-I
 
Course Introduction - Need, Basic Guidelines, Content and Process for Value Education Understanding the need, basic guidelines, content and process for Value Education, Self-Exploration–what is it? - its content and process; ‘Natural Acceptance’ and Experiential Validation- as the mechanism for self exploration, Continuous Happiness and Prosperity- A look at basic Human Aspirations, Right understanding, Relationship and Physical Facilities-the basic requirements for fulfillment of aspirations of every human being with their correct priority, Understanding Happiness and Prosperity correctly- A critical appraisal of the current scenario, Method to fulfill the above human aspirations: understanding and living in harmony at various levels.
 
UNIT-II
 
Understanding Harmony in the Human Being - Harmony in Myself Understanding human being as a co-existence of the sentient ‘I’ and the material ‘Body’, Understanding the needs of Self (‘I’) and ‘Body’ - Sukh and Suvidha, Understanding the Body as an instrument of ‘I’ (I being the doer, seer and enjoyer), Understanding the characteristics and activities of ‘I’ and harmony in ‘I’, Understanding the harmony of I with the Body: Sanyam and Swasthya; correct appraisal of Physical needs, meaning of Prosperity in detail, Programs to ensure Sanyam and Swasthya.
 
UNIT-III
 
Understanding Harmony in the Family and Society- Harmony in Human-Human Relationship Understanding harmony in the Family- the basic unit of human interaction , Understanding values in human-human relationship; meaning of Nyaya and program for its fulfillment to ensure Ubhay-tripti; Trust (Vishwas) and Respect (Samman) as the foundational values of relationship, Understanding the meaning of Vishwas; Difference between intention and competence, Understanding the meaning of Samman, Difference between respect and differentiation; the other salient values in relationship, Understanding the harmony in the society (society being an extension of family): Samadhan, Samridhi, Abhay, Sah-astitva as comprehensive Human Goals, Visualizing a universal harmonious order in societyUndivided Society (AkhandSamaj), Universal Order (SarvabhaumVyawastha )- from family to world family!.
 
UNIT-IV
 
Understanding Harmony in the Nature and Existence - Whole existence as Co-existence Understanding the harmony in the Nature, Interconnectedness and mutual fulfillment among the four orders of nature- recyclability and self-regulation in nature, Understanding
 
Existence as Co-existence (Sah-astitva) of mutually interacting units in all-pervasive space, Holistic perception of harmony at all levels of existence.
 
UNIT-V
 
Implications of the above Holistic Understanding of Harmony on Professional Ethics Natural acceptance of human values, Definitiveness of Ethical Human Conduct, Basis for Humanistic Education, Humanistic Constitution and Humanistic Universal Order, Competence in Professional Ethics: a) Ability to utilize the professional competence for augmenting universal human order, b) Ability to identify the scope and characteristics of people-friendly and eco-friendly production systems, technologies and management models, Case studies of typical holistic technologies, management models and production systems, Strategy for transition from the present state to Universal Human Order: a) At the level of individual: as socially and ecologically responsible engineers, technologists and managers, b) At the level of society: as mutually enriching institutions and organizations.
 
Recommended books:
 
R R Gaur, R Sangal, G P Bagaria, 2009, A Foundation Course in Human Values and Professional Ethics.
 
Ivan Illich, 1974, Energy & Equity, The Trinity Press, Worcester, and Harper Collins, USA.
 
E.F. Schumacher, 1973, Small is Beautiful: a study of economics as if people mattered, Blond & Briggs, Britain.
 
Sussan George, 1976, How the Other Half Dies, Penguin Press. Reprinted 1986, 1991.
 
Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers, William W. Behrens III, 1972, Limits to Growth – Club of Rome’s report, Universe Books.
 
A Nagraj, 1998, Jeevan Vidya Ek Parichay, Divya Path Sansthan, Amarkantak.
 
P L Dhar, RR Gaur, 1990, Science and Humanism, Commonwealth Publishers.
 
A N Tripathy, 2003, Human Values, New Age International Publishers.
 
SubhasPalekar, 2000, How to practice Natural Farming, Pracheen (Vaidik) KrishiTantraShodh, Amravati.
 
E G Seebauer & Robert L. Berry, 2000, Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists & Engineers , Oxford University Press.
 
M Govindrajran, S Natrajan & V.S. Senthil Kumar, Engineering Ethics (including Human Values), Eastern Economy Edition, Prentice Hall of India Ltd.
B P Banerjee, 2005, Foundations of Ethics and Management, Excel Books.
 
B L Bajpai, 2004, Indian Ethos and Modern Management, New Royal Book Co., Lucknow. Reprinted 2008.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEMESTER IV
 
BP401T. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –III
 
(Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject imparts knowledge on stereo-chemical aspects of organic compounds and organic reactions, important named reactions, chemistry of important hetero cyclic compounds. It also emphasizes on medicinal and other uses of organic compounds.
 
Objectives: At the end of the course, the student shall be able to
 
Understand the methods of preparation and properties of organic compounds.
 
Explain the stereo chemical aspects of organic compounds and stereo chemical reactions.
 
Know the medicinal uses and other applications of organic compounds.
 
Course
 
Content:
 
Note: To emphasize on definition, types, mechanisms, examples, uses/applications
 
Unit I 10 Hours Stereo isomerism
 
Optical isomerism– Optical activity, enantiomerism, diastereoisomerism, meso compounds.
 
Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral molecules.
 
DL system  of  nomenclature  of  optical  isomers,  sequence  rules,  RS  system  of
 
nomenclature of optical isomers.
 
Reactions of chiral molecules.
 
Racemic modification and resolution of racemic mixture. Asymmetric synthesis: partial and absolute.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Geometrical isomerism- Nomenclature of geometrical isomers (Cis-Trans, E-Z, Syn-Anti systems). Methods of determination of configuration of geometrical isomers. Conformational isomerism in Ethane, n-Butane and Cyclohexane.
 
Stereo isomerism in biphenyl compounds (Atropisomerism) and conditions for optical activity.
 
Stereospecific and stereoselective reactions
 
 
Unit III
 
Heterocyclic compounds:
 
Nomenclature and classification
 
Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives
 
Pyrrole, Furan, and Thiophene
 
 
10 Hours
 
Relative aromaticity and reactivity of Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene.
 
 
 
Unit IV
 
Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives.
 
 
 
8 Hours
 
 
Pyrazole, Imidazole, Oxazole and Thiazole.
 
Pyridine, Quinoline, Isoquinoline, Acridine and Indole. Basicity of Pyridine.
 
Synthesis and medicinal uses of Pyrimidine, Purine, Azepines and their derivatives.
 
Unit V07 Hours
Reactions of synthetic importance
Metal  hydride  reduction  (NaBH4   and  LiAlH4),  Clemmensenreduction,  Birch
reduction, Wolff Kishner reduction.
Oppenauer-oxidation and Dakin reaction.
Beckmanns  rearrangement  and  Schmidt  rearrangement.
Claisen-Schmidt condensation.
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Organic Chemistry- by Morrison R.T. and Boyd R.N., Bhattacharjee S.K., 7th Edition, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
 
Organic Chemistry- by Finar I.L., 6th  Edition, Vol.-I, Dorling Kindersley
(India)Pvt. Ltd (Pearson Education).
 
3. An Introduction to the Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds- by Acheson R.M.,, 3rd Edition, Wiley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Heterocyclic Chemistry- by Gilchrist T.L., Pearson Education (Singapore) Ltd.
 
Heterocyclic Chemistry- by Bansal R.K., New Age International Publishers.
 
A Textbook of Organic Chemistry- by Jain M.K. and Sharma S.C., Shoban Lal and Co. Educational Publishers.
 
Advanced General Organic Chemistry- A Modern Approach- by Ghosh S. K., Part-I & II, 3rd Edition, New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd.
 
8. Organic  Chemistry- by Bruice  P.Y.,  3rdEdition,  Dorling  Kindersley
 
(India)  Pvt.  Ltd.  (Pearson Education).
 
The Chemistry of Organic Medicinal Products- by Jenkins G.L., Hartung W.H., Hamlin K.E. and Data J.B., 4th Edition, Pharma Med Press, Hyderabad.
 
BP402T. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – I (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure, chemistry and therapeutic value of drugs. The subject emphasizes on structure activity relationships of drugs, importance of physicochemical properties and metabolism of drugs. The syllabus also emphasizes on chemical synthesis of important drugs under each class.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
 
Understand the chemistry of drugs with respect to their pharmacological activity
 
Understand the drug metabolic pathways, adverse effect and therapeutic value of drugs
 
Know the Structural Activity Relationship (SAR) of different class of drugs
 
Write the chemical synthesis of some drugs
 
Course Content:
 
Study of the development of the following classes of drugs, Classification, mechanism of action, uses of drugs mentioned in the course, Structure activity relationship of selective class of drugs as specified in the course and synthesis of drugs superscripted (*)
 
UnitI10 Hours
 
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
 
History and development of medicinal chemistry Physicochemical properties in relation to biological action Ionization, Solubility, Partition Coefficient, Hydrogen bonding, Protein binding, Chelation, Bioisosterism, Optical and Geometrical isomerism.
Drug metabolism
 
Drug metabolism principles- Phase I and Phase II.
 
Factors affecting drug metabolism including stereo chemical aspects.
 
UnitII10 Hours
 
Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System
 
Adrenergic Neurotransmitters:
 
Biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamine.
 
Adrenergic receptors (Alpha & Beta) and their distribution.
 
Sympathomimetic agents: SAR of sympathomimetic agents
 
Direct acting: Nor-epinephrine, Epinephrine, Phenylephrine*, Dopamine,
 
Methyldopa,Clonidine,Dobutamine,Isoproterenol,Terbutaline,
 
Salbutamol*,Bitolterol,Naphazoline,Oxymetazolineand
 
Xylometazoline.
 
Indirect acting agents: Hydroxyamphetamine, Pseudoephedrine, Propylhexedrine.
 
Agents with mixed mechanism: Ephedrine, Metaraminol.
 
Adrenergic Antagonists:
 
Alpha adrenergic blockers: Tolazoline*, Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin, Dihydroergotamine, Methysergide.
 
Beta adrenergic blockers: SAR of beta blockers, Propranolol*, Metibranolol, Atenolol, Betazolol, Bisoprolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol, Labetolol, Carvedilol.
 
Unit III10 Hours
 
Cholinergic
 
neurotransmitters:
 
Biosynthesis and catabolism of acetylcholine.
 
Cholinergic receptors (Muscarinic & Nicotinic) and their distribution.
 
Parasympathomimetic agents: SAR of Parasympathomimetic agents
 
Direct acting agents: Acetylcholine, Carbachol*, Bethanechol, Methacholine, Pilocarpine.
 
Indirect acting/ Cholinesterase inhibitors (Reversible & Irreversible): Physostigmine, Neostigmine*, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium chloride, Tacrine hydrochloride, Ambenonium chloride, Isofluorphate, Echothiophate iodide,
Parathione, Malathion.
Cholinesterase reactivator: Pralidoxime chloride.
Cholinergic Blocking agents: SAR of cholinolytic agents
Solanaceousalkaloids and  analogues:  Atropine  sulphate,  Hyoscyamine
sulphate, Scopolamine hydrobromide, Homatropine hydrobromide, Ipratropium
bromide*.
Synthetic  cholinergic  blocking  agents:  Tropicamide,Cyclopentolate
hydrochloride, Clidinium bromide, Dicyclomine hydrochloride*, Glycopyrrolate,
Methanthelinebromide,Propantheline bromide, Benztropine mesylate,
Orphenadrinecitrate, Biperidine hydrochloride, Procyclidinehydrochloride*,
Tridihexethylchloride, Isopropamide iodide, Ethopropazine hydrochloride.
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
 
A. Sedatives and Hypnotics:
 
Benzodiazepines: SAR of Benzodiazepines, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam*, Oxazepam, Chlorazepate, Lorazepam, Alprazolam, Zolpidem
 
Barbiturtes: SAR of barbiturates, Barbital*, Phenobarbital, Mephobarbital, Amobarbital, Butabarbital, Pentobarbital, Secobarbital. Miscelleneous: Amides & imides: Glutethmide.
 
Alcohol & their carbamate derivatives: Meprobomate, Ethchlorvynol. Aldehyde
 
their derivatives: Triclofos sodium, Paraldehyde. B. Antipsychotics
 
Phenothiazeines: SAR of Phenothiazeines- Promazine hydrochloride, Chlorpromazine hydrochloride*, Triflupromazine, Thioridazine hydrochloride, Piperacetazine hydrochloride, Prochlorperazine maleate, Trifluoperazine hydrochloride.
 
Ring Analogues of Phenothiazeines: Chlorprothixene, Thiothixene, Loxapine succinate, Clozapine.
Fluro buterophenones: Haloperidol, Droperidol, Risperidone.
 
Beta amino ketones: Molindone hydrochloride.
 
Benzamides: Sulpieride.
 
C. Anticonvulsants: SAR of Anticonvulsants, mechanism of anticonvulsant action.
 
Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Methabarbital.
 
Hydantoins: Phenytoin*, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin.
 
Oxazolidine diones: Trimethadione, Paramethadione.
 
Succinimides: Phensuximide, Methsuximide, Ethosuximide*
 
Urea and monoacylureas: Phenacemide, Carbamazepine*
 
Benzodiazepines: Clonazepam.
 
Miscellaneous: Primidone, Valproic acid , Gabapentin, Felbamate
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
 
General anesthetics:
 
Inhalation anesthetics: Halothane*, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Sevoflurane,
 
Isoflurane, Desflurane.
 
Ultra short acting barbitutrates: Methohexital sodium*, Thiamylal sodium, Thiopental sodium.
 
Dissociative anesthetics: Ketamine hydrochloride.* Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics
Morphine and related drugs: SAR of Morphine analogues, Morphine sulphate, Codeine, Meperidine hydrochloride, Anilerdine hydrochloride, Diphenoxylate hydrochloride, Loperamide hydrochloride, Fentanyl citrate*, Methadone hydrochloride*, Propoxyphene hydrochloride, Pentazocine, Levorphanol tartarate.
 
Narcotic antagonists: Nalorphine hydrochloride, Levallorphan tartarate, Naloxone hydrochloride.
 
Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, Aspirin, Mefenamic acid*, Meclofenamate, Indomethacin, Sulindac, Tolmetin, Zomepriac, Diclofenac, Ketorolac, Ibuprofen*, Naproxen, Piroxicam, Phenacetin, Acetaminophen, Antipyrine, Phenylbutazone.
 
BP406P. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – I (Practical)
 
4 Hours/Week
 
Preparation of drugs/ intermediates
 
1,3-pyrazole
 
1,3-oxazole
 
Benzimidazole
 
Benztriazole
 
2,3- diphenyl quinoxaline
 
Benzocaine
 
Phenytoin
 
Phenothiazine
 
Barbiturate
 
II    Assay of drugs
 
Chlorpromazine
 
Phenobarbitone
 
Atropine
 
Ibuprofen
 
Aspirin
 
Furosemide
 
III   Determination of Partition coefficient for any two drugs
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Wilson and Giswold’s Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Block J.H. and Beale J.M., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
 
Foye’s Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Lemke T.L., Williams D.A., Roche V.F. and Zito S.W., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
 
Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery by Abraham D.J., Vol I to IV.John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
 
Synthesis of Essential Drugs by Vardanyan R.S. and Hruby V.J., Elsevier.
 
Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Singh H. and Kapoor V.K., Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
 
Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach by Nogrady T., Oxford University Press, NewYork.
 
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action by Silverman R.B., Elsevier.
 
Essentials of Medicinal Chemistry by Korolkovas A., John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
 
Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery by Larsen P.K., Liljefors T. and Madsen U., Taylor and Francis Inc.
 
Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann F.G. and Saunders B.C., Orient Longman Limited.
 
Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry by Furniss B.S., Hannaford
 
A.J., Smith P.W.G. and Tatchell A. R., Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
 
(Pearson Education Ltd.).
 
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Lednicer, Vol. 1-5.
 
Indian Pharmacopoeia.
 
The Chemistry of Organic Medicinal Products by Jenkins G.L., Hartung W.H., Hamlin K.E. and Data J.B., PharmaMed Press Hyderabad.
 
BP 403 T. PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS-II (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: The course deals with the various physical and physicochemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.
 
Objectives: Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to
 
Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms
 
Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing nad determination of expiry date of formulations
Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the
 
formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms.
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I07 Hours
 
Colloidal dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems & their general characteristics, size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids
comparative account of their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes, coacervation, peptization& protective action.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain, Elastic Modulus
 
Unit III10 Hours
 
Coarse dispersion: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, formulation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions and theories of emulsification, microemulsion and multiple emulsions; Stability of
 
emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions and emulsion formulation by HLB method.
 
Unit IV10Hours
 
Micromeretics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
 
Unit V10 Hours
 
Drug stability: Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic rate constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, Simple numerical problems. Stabilization of medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability testing in expiration dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Photolytic degradation and its prevention
 
BP 407P. PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS- II (Practical)
 
3 Hrs/week
 
Determination of particle size, particle size distribution using sieving method
 
Determination of particle size, particle size distribution using Microscopic method
 
Determination of bulk density, true densit y and porosity
 
Determine the angle of repose and influence of lubricant on angle of repose
 
Determination of viscosity of liquid using Ostwald’s viscometer
 
Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different suspending agent
 
Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different concentration of single suspending agent
 
Determination of viscosity of semisolid by using Brookfield viscometer
 
Determination of reaction rate constant first order.
 
Determination of reaction rate constant second order
 
Accelerated stability studies
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin, Sixth edition.
 
Experimental pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.
 
Tutorial pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
 
Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
 
Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to 3, Marcel Dekkar Inc.
 
Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Disperse systems, volume 1,2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.
 
Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C, and Manavalan R.
 
BP 404 T. PHARMACOLOGY-I (Theory)
 
45 Hrs
 
Scope: The main purpose of the subject is to understand what drugs do to the living organisms and how their effects can be applied to therapeutics. The subject covers the information about the drugs like, mechanism of action, physiological and biochemical effects (pharmacodynamics) as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetics) along with the adverse effects, clinical uses, interactions, doses, contraindications and routes of administration of different classes of drugs.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
 
Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs
 
Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub cellular/ macromolecular levels.
 
Apply the basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of various diseases.
 
Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments
 
Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with other bio medical sciences
 
Course Content:
 
 
Unit I
 
1.General Parmacology
 
 
08 hours
 
 
Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of drug administration, Agonists, antagonists( competitive and non competitive), spare receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.
 
Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs .Enz yme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination
 
Unit II12 Hours
 
General Pharmacology
 
Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor, transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.
Adverse drug reactions.
 
Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic)
 
d. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase, preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance.
 
Unit III 10 Hours 2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on peripheral nervous system
 
a. Organization and function of ANS.
 
b.Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters.
 
c. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.
 
d. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
 
e. Local anesthetic agents.
 
f. Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma
 
Unit IV08 Hours
 
Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
 
Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S. special emphasis on importance of various neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, dopamine.
 
General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.
 
Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
 
Anti-epileptics.
 
Alcohols and disulfiram.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
 
Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents, antimanics and hallucinogens.
 
Drugs used in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
 
CNS stimulants and nootropics.
 
Opioid analgesics and antagonists
 
Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.
 
BP 408 P. PHARMACOLOGY-I (Practical)
 
4Hrs/Week
 
Introduction to experimental pharmacology.
 
Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology.
 
Study of common laboratory animals.
 
Maintenance of laboratory animals as per CPCSEA guidelines.
 
Common laboratory techniques. Blood withdrawal, serum and plasma separation, anesthetics and euthanasia used for animal studies.
Study of different routes of drugs administration in mice/rats.
 
Study of effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers on the phenobarbitone sleeping time in mice.
 
Effect of drugs on ciliary motility of frog oesophagus
 
Effect of drugs on rabbit eye.
 
Effects of skeletal muscle relaxants using rota-rod apparatus.
 
Effect of drugs on locomotor activity using actophotometer.
 
Anticonvulsant effect of drugs by MES and PTZ method.
 
Study of stereotype and anti-catatonic activity of drugs on rats/mice.
 
Study of anxiolytic activity of drugs using rats/mice.
 
Study of local anesthetics by different methods
 
Note: All laboratory techniques and animal experiments are demonstrated by simulated experiments by softwares and videos
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology, Churchil Livingstone Elsevier
 
Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc Graw-Hill.
 
Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.
 
Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A. K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs, The Point Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
 
Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews-Pharmacology.
 
K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
 
Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher
 
Modern Pharmacology with clinical Applications, by Charles R.Craig& Robert.
 
Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Hilton & Company, Kolkata.
 
Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. VallabhPrakashan.
 
BP 405 T. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY I
 
(Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope, classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals present in them and their medicinal properties.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
 
To know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs.
 
To know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature.
 
Know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs.
 
To carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs.
 
 
Course Content:
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
 
Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
 
Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
 
Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
 
Classification of drugs:
 
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero taxonomical classification of drugs
 
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
 
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical,
 
chemical and biological methods and properties.
 
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.
 
Unit II10 Hours
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal
plants. Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
Conservation of medicinal plants.
Unit III07 Hours
 
Plant tissue culture:
 
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.
 
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
 
Edible vaccines.
 
Unit IV 10 Hours Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
 
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely,
 
Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
 
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
 
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins.
 
Unit V08 Hours
 
Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing following drugs.
 
Plant Products:
 
Fibers - Cotton, Jute, Hemp.
 
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens.
 
Primary metabolites:
 
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites: Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey.
 
Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
 
Lipids(Waxes, fats, fixed oils): Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax.
 
Marine Drugs: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources
 
408 P. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY I (Practical)
 
4 Hours/Week
 
Analysis of crude drugs by chemical tests: (i)Tragaccanth
 
Acacia
 
Agar
 
Gelatin
 
starch
 
Honey
 
Castor oil.
 
Determination of stomatal number and index.
 
Determination of vein islet number, vein islet termination and paliside ratio.
 
Determination of size of starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals by eye piece micrometer.
 
Determination of Fiber length and width.
 
Determination of number of starch grains by Lycopodium spore method.
 
Determination of Ash value.
 
Determination of Extractive values of crude drugs.
 
Determination of moisture content of crude drugs.
 
Determination of swelling index and foaming.
 
Recommended Books: (Latest editions)
 
W. C. Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co., London, 2009.
 
Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.
 
Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis
 
Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi.
 
Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
 
Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.
 
Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New Delhi, 2007.
 
Practical Pharmacognosy: C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae.
 
Anatomy of Crude Drugs by M.A. Iyengar.
 
 
 
 
 
DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL
 
UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EVALUATION SCHEME& SYLLABUS
 
FOR
 
 
B. PHARMA 3rd  YEAR
 
ON
 
 
PCI Guidelines
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(EFFECTIVE FROM THE SESSION: 2019-20)
 
 
Scheme of Evaluation
 
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.)
 
 
Semester VEffective from the Session 2019-20
CourseInternal AssessmentEnd Semester ExamsTotal
Name of the course
ContinuousSessional Exams
codeTotalMarksDuratioMarks
ModeMarksDuratio
n
BP501TMedicinal Chemistry II – Theory10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
BP502TIndustrial Pharmacy I– Theory10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
BP503TPharmacology II – Theory10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
BP504TPharmacognosy II – Theory10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
BP505TPharmaceutical Jurisprudence –10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
Theory
BP506PIndustrial Pharmacy I– Practical5104 Hr15354 Hrs50
BP507PPharmacology II – Practical5104 Hr15354 Hrs50
BP508PPharmacognosy II – Practical5104 Hr15354 Hrs50
Total6510517 Hr17048027 Hrs650
 
 
Semester VI
 
CourseName of the course
code
BP601TMedicinal Chemistry III – Theory
BP602T  Pharmacology III – Theory
BP603THerbal Drug Technology –
Theory
BP604TBiopharmaceutics and
Pharmacokinetics – Theory
BP605TPharmaceutical Biotechnology–
Theory
BP606TQuality Assurance– Theory
BP607PMedicinal chemistry III –
Practical
 
BP608PPharmacology III – Practical
BP609PHerbal Drug Technology –
Practical
 
Total  
 
 
 
 
Internal AssessmentEnd Semester ExamsTotal
ContinuousSessional Exams
TotalMarksDurationMarks
ModeMarksDuration
10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
10151 Hr25753 Hrs100
5104 Hrs15354 Hrs50
5104 Hrs15354 Hrs50
5104 Hrs15354 Hrs50
7512018 Hrs19555530 Hrs750
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEMESTER V
 
 
BP501T: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY-II (Theory)
 
45 Horus
 
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure, chemistry and therapeutic value of drugs. The subject emphasizes on structure activity relationships of drugs, importance of physicochemical properties and metabolism of drugs. The syllabus also emphasizes on chemical synthesis of important drugs under each class.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
 
Understand the chemistry of drugs with respect to their pharmacological activity
 
Understand the drug metabolic pathways, adverse effect and therapeutic value of drugs
 
Know the Structural Activity Relationship of different class of drugs
 
Study the chemical synthesis of selected drugs
 
Course Content:
 
Study of the development of the following classes of drugs, Classification, mechanism of action, uses of drugs mentioned in the course, Structure activity relationship of selective class of drugs as specified in the course and synthesis of drugs superscripted (*)
 
UNIT- I10 Hours
 
Antihistaminic agents: Histamine, receptors and their distribution in the human body.
 
H1–antagonists: Diphenhydramine hydrochloride*, Dimenhydrinate, Doxylamines succinate, Clemastine fumarate, Diphenylphyraline hydrochloride, Tripelenamine hydrochloride, Chlorcyclizine hydrochloride, Meclizine hydrochloride, Buclizine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Triprolidine hydrochloride*, Phenidamine tartarate, Promethazine hydrochloride*, Trimeprazine tartrate, Cyproheptadine hydrochloride, Azatidine maleate, Astemizole, Loratadine, Cetirizine, Levocetrazine Cromolyn sodium.
 
H2-antagonists: Cimetidine*, Famotidine, Ranitidine.
 
Gastric Proton pump inhibitors: Omeprazole, Lansoprazole, Rabeprazole, Pantoprazole.
 
Anti-neoplastic agents:
 
Alkylating agents: Meclorethamine*, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil, Busulfan, Thiotepa
 
Antimetabolites: Mercaptopurine*, Thioguanine, Fluorouracil, Floxuridine, Cytarabine, Methotrexate*, Azathioprine.
 
Antibiotics: Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Bleom ycin.
 
Plant products: Etoposide, Vinblastin sulphate, Vincristin sulphate.
 
Miscellaneous: Cisplatin, Mitotane.
 
 
UNIT – II10 Hours
 
Anti-anginal:
 
Vasodilators: Amyl nitrite, Nitroglycerin*, Pentaerythritol tetranitrate, Isosorbide dinitrite*, Dipyridamole.
 
Calcium channel blockers: Verapamil, Bepridil hydrochloride, Diltiazem hydrochloride, Nifedipine, Amlodipine, Felodipine, Nicardipine, Nimodipine.
 
Diuretics:
 
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide*, Methazolamide, Dichlorphenamide.
 
Thiazides: Chlorthiazide*, Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydroflumethiazide, Cyclothiazide.
 
Loop diuretics: Furosemide*, Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid.
 
Potassium sparing Diuretics: Spironolactone, Triamterene.
 
Amiloride. Osmotic Diuretics: Mannitol.
 
Anti-hypertensive Agents: Timolol, Captopril, Lisinopril, Enalapril, Benazepril hydrochloride, Quinapril hydrochloride, Methyldopate hydrochloride,* Clonidine hydrochloride, Guanethidine monosulphate, Guanabenz acetate, Sodium nitroprusside, Diazoxide, Minoxidil, Reserpine, Hydralazine hydrochloride.
 
UNIT- III10 Hours
 
Anti-arrhythmic Drugs: Quinidine sulphate, Procainamide hydrochloride, Disopyramide phosphate*, Phenytoin sodium, Lidocaine hydrochloride, Tocainide hydrochloride, Mexiletine hydrochloride, Lorcainide hydrochloride, Amiodarone, Sotalol.
 
Anti-hyperlipidemic agents: Clofibrate, Lovastatin, Cholesteramine and Cholestipol
 
Coagulant & Anticoagulants: Menadione, Acetomenadione, Warfarin*, Anisindione, clopidogrel.
 
Drugs used in Congestive Heart Failure: Digoxin, Digitoxin, Nesiritide, Bosentan, Tezosentan.
 
 
UNIT- IV
 
 
08 Hours
 
 
Drugs acting on Endocrine system
 
Nomenclature, Stereochemistry and metabolism of steroids.
 
 
Sex hormones: Testosterone, Nandralone, Progestrones, Oestriol, Oestradiol, Oestrione, Diethyl stilbestrol.
 
Drugs for erectile dysfunction: Sildenafil, Tadalafil.
 
Oral contraceptives: Mifepristone, Norgestril, Levonorgestrol.
 
 
Corticosteroids: Cortisone, Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone, Betamethasone, Dexamethasone.
 
Thyroid and antithyroid drugs: L-Thyroxine, L-Thyronine, Propylthiouracil, Methimazole.
 
UNIT – V07 Hours
 
Antidiabetic agents:
 
Insulin and its preparations.
 
Sulfonyl ureas: Tolbutamide*, Chlorpropamide, Glipizide, Glimepiride.
 
Biguanides: Metformin.
 
Thiazolidinediones: Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone.
 
Meglitinides: Repaglinide, Nateglinide.
 
Glucosidase inhibitors: Acrabose, Voglibose.
 
Local Anesthetics:
 
SAR of Local anesthetics.
 
Benzoic Acid derivatives; Cocaine, Hexylcaine, Meprylcaine, Cyclomethycaine, Piperocaine.
 
Amino Benzoic acid derivatives: Benzocaine*, Butamben, Procaine*, Butacaine, Propoxycaine, Tetracaine, Benoxinate.
 
Lidocaine/Anilide derivatives: Lignocaine, Mepivacaine, Prilocaine, Etidocaine.
 
Miscellaneous: Phenacaine, Diperodon, Dibucaine.*
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Wilson and Giswold’s Organic medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Foye’s Principles of Medicinal Chemistry.
Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry, Vol I to IV.
Introduction to principles of drug design- Smith and Williams.
Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Martindale’s Extra Pharmacopoeia.
 
Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar, Vol. II.
 
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Lednicer, Vol. 1to 5.
Indian Pharmacopoeia.
 
Text book of practical organic chemistry- A.I.Vogel.
 
BP502T: Industrial Pharmacy I (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: Course enables the student to understand and appreciate the influence of pharmaceutical additives and various pharmaceutical dosage forms on the performance of the drug product.
 
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
 
Know the various pharmaceutical dosage forms and their manufacturing techniques.
 
Know various considerations in development of pharmaceutical dosage forms
 
Formulate solid, liquid and semisolid dosage forms and evaluate them for their quality
 
Course content:
 
3 hours/ week
 
UNIT-I07 Hours
 
Preformulation Studies: Introduction to preformulation, goals and objectives, study of physicochemical characteristics of drug substances.
 
a. Physical properties: Physical form (crystal & amorphous), particle size, shape, flow properties, solubility profile (pKa, pH, partition coefficient), polymorphism.
 
b. Chemical Properties: Hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, racemisation, polymerization BCS classification of drugs & its significant
 
Application of preformulation considerations in the development of solid, liquid oral and parenteral dosage forms and its impact on stability of dosage forms.
 
 
UNIT-II 10 Hours Tablets:
 
 
Introduction, ideal characteristics of tablets, classification of tablets. Excipients, Formulation of tablets, granulation methods, compression and processing problems. Equipments and tablet tooling.
 
Tablet coating: Types of coating, coating materials, formulation of coating composition, methods of coating, equipment employed and defects in coating.
 
Quality control tests: In process and finished product tests
 
 
Liquid orals: Formulation and manufacturing consideration of syrups and elixirs suspensions and emulsions; Filling and packaging; evaluation of liquid orals official in pharmacopoeia
 
 
 
UNIT-III 08 Hours Capsules:
 
 
Hard gelatin capsules: Introduction, Production of hard gelatin capsule shells. size of capsules, Filling, finishing and special techniques of formulation of hard gelatin capsules, manufacturing defects. In process and final product quality control tests for capsules.
 
Soft gelatin capsules: Nature of shell and capsule content, size of capsules,importance of base adsorption and minim/gram factors, production, in process and final product quality control tests. Packing, storage and stability testing of soft gelatin capsules and their applications.
 
Pellets: Introduction, formulation requirements, pelletization process, equipments for manufacture of pellets
 
 
UNIT-IV 10 Hours Parenteral Products:
 
 
a. Definition, types, advantages and limitations. Preformulation factors and essential requirements, vehicles, additives, importance of isotonicity.
 
Production procedure, production facilities and controls, aseptic processing.
 
Formulation of injections, sterile powders, large volume parenterals and lyophilized products.
 
Containers and closures selection, filling and sealing of ampoules, vials and infusion fluids. Quality control tests of parenteral products.
 
Ophthalmic Preparations: Introduction, formulation considerations; formulation of eye drops, eye ointments and eye lotions; methods of preparation; labeling, containers; evaluation of ophthalmic preparations.
 
UNIT-V10 Hours
 
Cosmetics: Formulation and preparation of the following cosmetic preparations: lipsticks, shampoos, cold cream and vanishing cream, tooth pastes, hair dyes and sunscreens.
 
Pharmaceutical Aerosols: Definition, propellants, containers, valves, types of aerosol systems; formulation and manufacture of aerosols; Evaluation of aerosols; Quality control and stability studies.
 
Packaging Materials Science: Materials used for packaging of pharmaceutical products, factors influencing choice of containers, legal and official requirements for containers, stability aspects of packaging materials, quality control tests.
 
 
 
BP506P: Industrial Pharmacy I (Practical)
 
4 Hours/week
 
Preformulation studies on Paracetamol/Aspirin/or any other drug
 
Preparation and evaluation of Paracetamol tablets
 
Preparation and evaluation of Aspirin tablets
 
Coating of tablets- film coating of tables/granules
 
Preparation and evaluation of Tetracycline capsules
 
Preparation of Calcium Gluconate injection
 
Preparation of Ascorbic Acid injection
 
Qulaity control test of (as per IP) marketed tablets and capsules
 
Preparation of Eye drops/ and Eye ointments
 
Preparation of Creams (cold / vanishing cream)
 
Evaluation of Glass containers (as per IP)
 
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Pharmaceutical dosage forms - Tablets, volume 1 -3 by H.A. Liberman, Leon Lachman & J.B.Schwartz
 
Pharmaceutical dosage form - Parenteral medication vol- 1&2 by Liberman & Lachman
 
Pharmaceutical dosage form disperse system VOL-1 by Liberman & Lachman
 
Modern Pharmaceutics by Gilbert S. Banker & C.T. Rhodes, 3rd Edition
 
Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th edition Pharmaceutical Science (RPS)
 
Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Liberman & Lachman
 
Pharmaceutics- The science of dosage form design by M.E.Aulton, Churchill livingstone, Latest edition
 
Introduction to Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by H. C.Ansel, Lea &Febiger, Philadelphia, 5thedition, 2005
 
Drug stability - Principles and practice by Cartensen & C.J. Rhodes, 3rd Edition, Marcel Dekker Series, Vol 107.
 
 
BP503T: PHARMACOLOGY-II (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject is intended to impart the fundamental knowledge on various aspects (classification, mechanism of action, therapeutic effects, clinical uses, side effects and contraindications) of drugs acting on different systems of body and in addition,emphasis on the basic concepts of bioassay.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
 
Understand the mechanism of drug action and its relevance in the treatment of different diseases
 
Demonstrate isolation of different organs/tissues from the laboratory animals by simulated experiments
 
Demonstrate the various receptor actions using isolated tissue preparation
 
4.  Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with related medical sciences
 
Course Content:
 
UNIT-I10 hours
Pharmacology of drugs acting on cardio vascular system
 
Introduction to hemodynamic and electrophysiology of heart.
Drugs used in congestive heart failure
 
Anti-hypertensive drugs.
Anti-anginal drugs.
 
Anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs.
 
UNIT-II10 hours
Pharmacology of drugs acting on cardio vascular system
Drug used in the therapy of shock.
Hematinics, coagulants and anticoagulants.
 
Fibrinolytics and anti-platelet drugs
Plasma volume expanders
 
Pharmacology of drugs acting on urinary system
Diuretics
 
Anti-diuretics.
 
UNIT-III10 hours
Autocoids and related drugs
Introduction to autacoids and classification
Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists.
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes and Leukotrienes.
Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P.
 
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
 
Anti-gout drugs
 
Antirheumatic drugs
 
 
UNIT-IV08 hours
Pharmacology of drugs acting on endocrine system
Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology.
Anterior Pituitary hormones- analogues and their inhibitors.
 
Thyroid hormones- analogues and their inhibitors.
 
Hormones regulating plasma calcium level- Parathormone, Calcitonin and Vitamin-D.
 
Insulin, Oral Hypogl ycemic agents and glucagon.
ACTH and corticosteroids.
 
UNIT-V07 hours
Pharmacology of drugs acting on endocrine system
Androgens and Anabolic steroids.
 
Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives.
Drugs acting on the uterus.
 
Bioassay
 
a. Principles and applications of bioassay.
b.Types of bioassay
 
Bioassay of insulin, oxytocin, vasopressin, ACTH,d-tubocurarine,digitalis, histamine and 5-HT
 
 
 
BP 507P: PHARMACOLOGY-II (Practical)
 
4Hrs/Week
 
Introduction to in-vitro pharmacology and physiological salt solutions.
Effect of drugs on isolated frog heart.
Effect of drugs on blood pressure and heart rate of dog.
Study of diuretic activity of drugs using rats/mice.
DRC of acetylcholine using frog rectus abdominis muscle.
 
Effect of physostigmine and atropine on DRC of acetylcholine using frog rectus abdominis muscle and rat ileum respectively.
 
Bioassay of histamine using guinea pig ileum by matching method.
Bioassay of oxytocin using rat uterine horn by interpolation method.
Bioassay of serotonin using rat fundus strip by three point bioassay.
 
Bioassay of acetylcholine using rat ileum/colon by four point bioassay.
Determination of PA2 value of prazosin using rat anococcygeus muscle (by Schilds plot method).
Determination of PD2 value using guinea pig ileum.
Effect of spasmogens and spasmolytics using rabbit jejunum.
 
Anti-inflammatory activity of drugs using carrageenan induced paw-edema model.
 
Analgesic activity of drug using central and peripheral methods
 
 
Note: All laboratory techniques and animal experiments are demonstrated by simulated experiments by softwares and videos
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology, Churchil Livingstone Elsevier
 
Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc Graw-Hill.
 
Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics
 
Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A. K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs, The Point Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
 
Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews-Pharmacology.
 
K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, , JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
 
Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher
 
Modern Pharmacology with clinical Applications, by Charles R.Craig& Robert.
 
Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Hilton & Company, Kolkata.
 
Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. Vallabh Prakashan.
 
 
BP504T: PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY II (Theory) 45Hours
 
 
Scope: The main purpose of subject is to impart the students the knowledge of how the secondary metabolites are produced in the crude drugs, how to isolate and identify and produce them industrially. Also this subject involves the study of producing the plants and phytochemicals through plant tissue culture, drug interactions and basic principles of traditional system of medicine
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
 
to know the modern extraction techniques, characterization and identification of the herbal drugs and phytoconstituents
 
to understand the preparation and development of herbal formulation.
 
to understand the herbal drug interactions
 
to carryout isolation and identification of phytoconstituents
 
Course Content:
UNIT-I07 Hours
Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination
 
Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
 
Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.
 
UNIT-II14 Hours
 
General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following
 
secondary metabolites:
 
Alkaloids: Vinca, Rauwolfia, Belladonna, Opium,
Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta
Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides & Triterpenoids: Liquorice, Dioscorea, Digitalis
 
Volatile oils: Mentha, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Coriander,
Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus
Resins: Benzoin, Guggul, Ginger, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Colophony
Glycosides: Senna, Aloes, Bitter Almond
 
Iridoids, Other terpenoids & Naphthaquinones: Gentian, Artemisia, taxus, carotenoids
 
 
UNIT-III
 
Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents
 
 
0 6 Hours
 
 
a)  Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin
 
b)  Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
 
c)  Alkaloids: Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
d)  Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin
 
UNIT-IV 10 Hours Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents: Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine
 
 
UNIT V
Basics of Phytochemistry
 
Modern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy,
 
 
0 8 Hours
 
 
chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.
 
 
BP508P: PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY II (Practical)
4 Hours/Week
 
Morphology, histology and powder characteristics & extraction & detection of: Cinchona, Cinnamon, Senna, Clove, Ephedra, Fennel and Coriander
Exercise involving isolation & detection of active principles
Caffeine - from tea dust.
Diosgenin from Dioscorea
 
Atropine from Belladonna
Sennosides from Senna
Separation of sugars by Paper chromatography
TLC of herbal extract
Distillation of volatile oils and detection of phytoconstitutents by TLC
 
Analysis of crude drugs by chemical tests: (i) Asafoetida (ii) Benzoin (iii) Colophony (iv) Aloes (v) Myrrh
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co., London, 2009.
 
Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi.
 
Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
 
Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.
 
Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.S.H.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New Delhi, 2007
 
Herbal Cosmetics by H.Pande, Asia Pacific Business press, Inc, New Delhi.
 
A.N. Kalia, Textbook of Industrial Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2005.
 
R Endress, Plant cell Biotechnology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
 
Pharmacognosy & Pharmacobiotechnology. James Bobbers, Marilyn KS, VE Tylor.
 
The formulation and preparation of cosmetic, fragrances and flavours.
 
Remington’s Pharmaceutical sciences.
Text Book of Biotechnology by Vyas and Dixit.
 
Text Book of Biotechnology by R.C. Dubey.
 
 
BP505T: PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This course is designed to impart basic knowledge on important legislations related to the profession of pharmacy in India.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able to understand:
 
The Pharmaceutical legislations and their implications in the development and marketing of pharmaceuticals.
 
Various Indian pharmaceutical Acts and Laws
 
The regulatory authorities and agencies governing the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals
 
The code of ethics during the pharmaceutical practice
 
Course Content:
 
UNIT-I10 Hours
 
Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its rules 1945:
 
Objectives, Definitions, Legal definitions of schedules to the Act and Rules
 
Import of drugs – Classes of drugs and cosmetics prohibited from import, Import under license or permit. Offences and penalties.
 
Manufacture of drugs – Prohibition of manufacture and sale of certain drugs,
 
Conditions for grant of license and conditions of license for manufacture of drugs, Manufacture of drugs for test, examination and analysis, manufacture of new drug, loan license and repacking license.
 
UNIT-II10 Hours
 
Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its rules 1945.
 
Detailed study of Schedule G, H, M, N, P,T,U, V, X, Y, Part XII B, Sch F & DMR (OA).
 
Sale of Drugs – Wholesale, Retail sale and Restricted license. Offences and penalties.
 
Labeling & Packing of drugs- General labeling requirements and specimen labels for drugs and cosmetics, List of permitted colors. Offences and penalties.
 
Administration of the Act and Rules – Drugs Technical Advisory Board, Central drugs Laboratory, Drugs Consultative Committee, Government drug analysts, Licensing authorities, controlling authorities, Drugs Inspectors.
 
UNIT-III10 Hours
 
Pharmacy Act –1948: Objectives, Definitions, Pharmacy Council of India; its constitution and functions, Education Regulations, State and Joint state pharmacy councils; constitution and functions, Registration of Pharmacists, Offences and
 
 
 
Peal
ties
 
Medicinal and ToiletPreparation Act –1955:  Objectives,Definitions,
Licensing, ManufactureInbondand  Outsidebond,  Exportof  alcoholic
preparations,ManufactureofAyurvedic,Homeopathic,Patent&
ProprietaryPreparations. Offences and Penalties.
 
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic substances Act-1985 and Rules: Objectives, Definitions, Authorities and Officers, Constitution and Functions of narcotic & Psychotropic Consultative Committee, National Fund for Controlling the Drug Abuse, Prohibition, Control and Regulation, opium poppy cultivation and production of poppy straw, manufacture, sale and export of opium, Offences and Penalties.
 
 
UNIT-IV
Hours
 
 
08
 
 
 Study  ofSalient  Features  ofDrugsand  Magic  Remedies  Act  and
 
 
its rules: Objectives, Definitions, Prohibition of certain advertisements, Classes of Exempted advertisements, Offences and Penalties
 
Prevention of Cruelty to animals Act-1960: Objectives, Definitions, Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, CPCSEA guidelines for Breeding and Stocking of Animals, Performance of Experiments, Transfer and acquisition of animals for experiment, Records, Power to suspend or revoke registration, Offences and Penalties
 
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority: Drugs Price Control Order (DPCO)-
 
2013. Objectives, Definitions, Sale prices of bulk drugs, Retail price of formulations, Retail price and ceiling price of scheduled formulations, National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM)
 
UNIT-V07 Hours
 
Pharmaceutical Legislations – A brief review, Introduction, Study of drugs enquiry committee, Health survey and development committee, Hathi committee and Mudaliar committee
 
Code of Pharmaceutical ethics Definition, Pharmacist in relation to his job, trade, medical profession and his profession, Pharmacist’s oath
 
Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act Right to Information Act
 
Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
 
 
 
Recommended books: (Latest Edition)
 
Forensic Pharmacy by B. Suresh
 
Text book of Forensic Pharmacy by B.M. Mithal
 
Hand book of drug law-by M.L. Mehra
 
A text book of Forensic Pharmacy by N.K. Jain
 
Drugs and Cosmetics Act/Rules by Govt. of India publications.
 
Medicinal and Toilet preparations act 1955 by Govt. of India publications.
 
Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances act by Govt. of India publications
 
Drugs and Magic Remedies act by Govt. of India publication
 
9.Bare Acts of the said laws published by Government. Reference books (Theory)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEMESTER VI
 
 
 
BP601T: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – III (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure, chemistry and therapeutic value of drugs. The subject emphasis on modern techniques of rational drug design like quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR), Prodrug concept, combinatorial chemistry and Computer aided drug design (CADD). The subject also emphasizes on the chemistry, mechanism of action, metabolism, adverse effects, Structure Activity Relationships (SAR), therapeutic uses and synthesis of important drugs.
 
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able to
 
Understand the importance of drug design and different techniques of drug design.
 
Understand the chemistry of drugs with respect to their biological activity.
 
Know the metabolism, adverse effects and therapeutic value of drugs.
 
Know the importance of SAR of drugs.
 
Course Content:
 
Study of the development of the following classes of drugs, Classification, mechanism of action, uses of drugs mentioned in the course, Structure activity relationship of selective class of drugs as specified in the course and synthesis of drugs superscripted by (*)
 
UNIT – I10 Hours
 
Antibiotics
 
Historical background, Nomenclature, Stereochemistry, Structure activity relationship, Chemical degradation classification and important products of the following classes.
 
β-Lactam antibiotics: Penicillin, Cepholosporins, β- Lactamase inhibitors, Monobactams
 
Aminoglycosides: Streptomycin, Neomycin, Kanamycin
 
 
Tetracyclines: Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Minocycline, Doxycycline
 
 
Chlortetracycline,
 
 
UNIT – II
 
 
10 Hours
 
 
Antibiotics
 
Historical background, Nomenclature, Stereochemistry, Structure activity relationship, Chemical degradation classification and important products of the following classes.
 
 
Macrolide: Erythromycin Clarithromycin, Azithromycin.
 
Miscellaneous: Chloramphenicol*, Clindamycin.
 
Prodrugs: Basic concepts and application of prodrugs design.
 
Antimalarials: Etiology of malaria.
 
Quinolines: SAR, Quinine sulphate, Chloroquine*, Amodiaquine, Primaquine phosphate, Pamaquine*, Quinacrine hydrochloride, Mefloquine.
 
Biguanides and dihydro triazines: Cycloguanil pamoate, Proguanil.
 
Miscellaneous: Pyrimethamine, Artesunete, Artemether, Atovoquone.
 
UNIT – III10 Hours
 
Anti-tubercular Agents
 
Synthetic anti tubercular agents: Isoniozid*, Ethionamide, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Para amino salicylic acid.*
 
Anti tubercular antibiotics: Rifampicin, Rifabutin, Cycloserine Streptomycine, Capreomycin sulphate.
 
Urinary tract anti-infective agents
 
Quinolones:  SAR  of  quinolones,  Nalidixic  Acid,Norfloxacin,  Enoxacin,
 
Ciprofloxacin*, Ofloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Sparfloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Moxifloxacin
 
Miscellaneous: Furazolidine, Nitrofurantoin*, Methanamine.
 
Antiviral agents:
 
Amantadine hydrochloride, Rimantadine hydrochloride, Idoxuridine trifluoride, Acyclovir*, Gancyclovir, Zidovudine, Didanosine, Zalcitabine, Lamivudine, Loviride, Delavirding, Ribavirin, Saquinavir, Indinavir, Ritonavir.
 
UNIT – IV08 Hours
 
Antifungal agents:
 
Antifungal antibiotics: Amphotericin-B, Nystatin, Natamycin, Griseofulvin.
 
Synthetic Antifungal agents: Clotrimazole, Econazole, Butoconazole, Oxiconazole Tioconozole, Miconazole*, Ketoconazole, Terconazole, Itraconazole, Fluconazole, Naftifine hydrochloride, Tolnaftate*.
 
Anti-protozoal Agents: Metronidazole*, Tinidazole, Ornidazole, Diloxanide, Iodoquinol, Pentamidine Isethionate, Atovaquone, Eflornithine.
 
Anthelmintics: Diethylcarbamazine citrate*, Thiabendazole, Mebendazole*, Albendazole, Niclosamide, Oxamniquine, Praziquantal, Ivermectin.
 
 
Sulphonamides and Sulfones
 
Historical development, chemistry, classification and SAR of Sulfonamides: Sulphamethizole, Sulfisoxazole, Sulphamethizine, Sulfacetamide*, Sulphapyridine, Sulfamethoxaole*, Sulphadiazine, Mefenide acetate, Sulfasalazine.
 
Folate reductase inhibitors: Trimethoprim*, Cotrimoxazole.
 
Sulfones: Dapsone*.
 
UNIT – V07 Hours
 
Introduction to Drug Design
 
Various approaches used in drug design.
 
Physicochemical parameters used in quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) such as partition coefficient, Hammet’s electronic parameter, Tafts steric parameter and Hansch analysis.
 
Pharmacophore modeling and docking techniques.
 
Combinatorial Chemistry:  Concept  and  applicationsof  combinatorial
 
chemistry: solid phase and solution phase synthesis.
 
 
BP607P: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY- III (Practical)
4 Hours/ week
 
Preparation of drugs and intermediates
Sulphanilamide
 
7-Hydroxy, 4-methyl coumarin
Chlorobutanol
Triphenyl imidazole
Tolbutamide
6   Hexamine
 
IIAssay of drugs
Isonicotinic acid hydrazide
 
Chloroquine
Metronidazole
Dapsone
Chlorpheniramine maleate
6   Benzyl penicillin
 
Preparation of medicinally important compounds or intermediates by Microwave irradiation technique
 
IVDrawing structures and reactions using chem draw®
 
Determination of physicochemical properties such as logP, clogP, MR, Molecular weight, Hydrogen bond donors and acceptors for class of drugs course content using drug design software Drug likeliness screening (Lipinskies RO5)
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Wilson and Giswold’s Organic medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
 
Foye’s Principles of Medicinal Chemistry.
 
Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry, Vol I to IV.
 
Introduction to principles of drug design- Smith and Williams.
 
Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
 
Martindale’s extra pharmacopoeia.
 
Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar, Vol. II.
 
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Lednicer, Vol. 1-5.
 
Indian Pharmacopoeia.
 
Text book of practical organic chemistry- A.I.Vogel.
 
 
 
BP602T: PHARMACOLOGY-III (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This subject is intended to impart the fundamental knowledge on various aspects (classification, mechanism of action, therapeutic effects, clinical uses, side effects and contraindications) of drugs acting on respiratory and gastrointestinal system, infectious
diseases, immuno-pharmacology and in addition,emphasis on the principles of toxicology and chronopharmacology.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to:
 
understand the mechanism of drug action and its relevance in the treatment of different infectious diseases
 
comprehend the principles of toxicology and treatment of various poisoningsand
 
appreciate correlation of pharmacology with related medical sciences.
 
Course Content:
 
 
UNIT-I10 hours
Pharmacology of drugs acting on Respiratory system
 
Anti -asthmatic drugs
 
Drugs used in the management of COPD
 
Expectorants and antitussives
 
Nasal decongestants
 
Respiratory stimulants
 
Pharmacology of drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract
Antiulcer agents.
Drugs for constipation and diarrhoea.
 
Appetite stimulants and suppressants.
 
Digestants and carminatives.
 
Emetics and anti-emetics.
 
UNIT-II10 hours
Chemotherapy
General principles of chemotherapy.
 
Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole.
 
c. Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolins, tetracycline and aminogl ycosides
 
UNIT-III10 hours
Chemotherapy
Antitubercular agents
 
Antileprotic agents
 
 
c. Antifungal agents
 
d. Antiviral drugs
 
e.Anthelmintics
 
f. Antimalarial drugs
 
g. Antiamoebic agents
 
UNIT-IV08 hours
Chemotherapy
 
Urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
Chemotherapy of malignancy.
 
Immunopharmacology
 
Immunostimulants
 
Immunosuppressant
 
Protein drugs, monoclonal antibodies, target drugs to antigen, biosimilars
 
UNIT-V07 hours
Principles of toxicology
 
Definition and basic knowledge of acute, subacute and chronic toxicity.
 
Definition and basic knowledge of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicit y
 
General principles of treatment of poisoning
 
Clinical symptoms and management of barbiturates, morphine, organophosphosphorus compound and lead, mercury and arsenic poisoning.
 
Chronopharmacology
Definition of rhythm and cycles.
Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy.
 
 
 
BP608P:  PHARMACOLOGY-III (Practical)
 
4Hrs/Week
 
Dose calculation in pharmacological experiments
 
Antiallergic activity by mast cell stabilization assay
 
Study of anti-ulcer activity of a drug using pylorus ligand (SHAY) rat model and NSAIDS induced ulcer model.
 
Study of effect of drugs on gastrointestinal motility
 
Effect of agonist and antagonists on guinea pig ileum
 
Estimation of serum biochemical parameters by using semi- autoanalyser
 
Effect of saline purgative on frog intestine
 
Insulin hypoglycemic effect in rabbit
 
Test for pyrogens ( rabbit method)
 
Determination of acute oral toxicity (LD50) of a drug from a given data
 
Determination of acute skin irritation / corrosion of a test substance
 
Determination of acute eye irritation / corrosion of a test substance
 
Calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters from a given data
 
Biostatistics methods in experimental pharmacology( student’s t test, ANOVA)
 
Biostatistics methods in experimental pharmacology (Chi square test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test)
 
*Experiments are demonstrated by simulated experiments/videos
 
 
Recommended Books (Latest Editions)
 
Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology, Churchil Livingstone Elsevier
 
Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc Graw-Hill
 
Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics
 
Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A. K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs. The Point Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
 
Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews-Pharmacology
 
K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, , JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
 
Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher Modern Pharmacology with clinical Applications, by Charles R.Craig& Robert,
Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Hilton & Company, Kolkata,
 
Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. VallabhPrakashan,
 
N.Udupa and P.D. Gupta, Concepts in Chronopharmacology.
 
 
 
BP603T: HERBAL DRUG TECHNOLOGY (Theory)
 
45 hours
Scope: This subject gives the student the knowledge of basic understanding of herbal drug
 
industry, the quality of raw material, guidelines for quality of herbal drugs, herbal cosmetics,
 
natural sweeteners, nutraceutical etc. The subject also emphasizes on Good Manufacturing
 
Practices (GMP), patenting and regulatory issues of herbal drugs
 
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to:
 
understand raw material as source of herbal drugs from cultivation to herbal drug product
 
know the WHO and ICH guidelines for evaluation of herbal drugs
 
know the herbal cosmetics, natural sweeteners, nutraceuticals
 
appreciate patenting of herbal drugs, GMP .
 
Course content:
 
UNIT-I
 
 
11 Hours
 
Herbs as raw materials
 
Definition of herb, herbal medicine, herbal medicinal product, herbal drug preparation Source of Herbs
 
Selection, identification and authentication of herbal materials Processing of herbal raw material
 
Biodynamic Agriculture
 
Good agricultural practices in cultivation of medicinal plants including Organic farming.
 
Pest and Pest management in medicinal plants: Biopesticides/Bioinsecticides.
 
Indian Systems of Medicine
Basic principles involved in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy
 
Preparation and standardization of Ayurvedic formulations viz Aristas and Asawas, Ghutika,Churna, Lehya and Bhasma.
 
 
UNIT-II
 
Nutraceuticals
 
 
7 Hours
 
 
General aspects, Market, growth, scope and types of products available in the market. Health benefits and role of Nutraceuticals in ailments like Diabetes, CVS diseases, Cancer, Irritable bowel syndrome and various Gastro intestinal diseases.
 
Study of following herbs as health food: Alfaalfa, Chicory, Ginger, Fenugreek, Garlic, Honey, Amla, Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Spirulina
 
Herbal-Drug and Herb-Food Interactions: General introduction to interaction and classification. Study of following drugs and their possible side effects and interactions: Hypercium, kava-kava, Ginkobiloba, Ginseng, Garlic, Pepper & Ephedra.
 
 
UNIT-III
 
Herbal Cosmetics
 
 
10 Hours
 
 
Sources and description of raw materials of herbal origin used via, fixed oils, waxes, gums colours, perfumes, protective agents, bleaching agents, antioxidants in products such as skin care, hair care and oral hygiene products.
 
 
Herbal excipients:
 
Herbal Excipients – Significance of substances of natural origin as excipients – colorants, sweeteners, binders, diluents, viscosity builders, disintegrants, flavors & perfumes.
 
Herbal formulations :
 
Conventional herbal formulations like syrups, mixtures and tablets and Novel dosage forms like phytosomes
 
 
UNIT- IV
 
Evaluation of Drugs WHO & ICH guidelines for the assessment of herbal drugs
 
Stability testing of herbal drugs.
 
 
10 Hours
 
 
Patenting and Regulatory requirements of natural products:
 
Definition of the terms: Patent, IPR, Farmers right, Breeder’s right, Bioprospecting and Biopiracy
 
Patenting aspects of Traditional Knowledge and Natural Products. Case study of Curcuma & Neem.
 
Regulatory Issues - Regulations in India (ASU DTAB, ASU DCC), Regulation of manufacture of ASU drugs - Schedule Z of Drugs & Cosmetics Act for ASU drugs.
 
 
UNIT-V
General Introduction to Herbal Industry
 
Herbal drugs industry: Present scope and future prospects.
 
 
07 Hours
 
 
A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India.
 
Schedule T – Good Manufacturing Practice of Indian systems of medicine Components of GMP (Schedule – T) and its objectives
 
Infrastructural requirements, working space, storage area, machinery and equipments, standard operating procedures, health and hygiene, documentation and records.
 
 
 
BP609P: HERBAL DRUG TECHNOLOGY (Practical)
 
4 hours/ week
 
To perform preliminary phytochemical screening of crude drugs.
Determination of the alcohol content of Asava and Arista
Evaluation of excipients of natural origin
 
Incorporation of prepared and standardized extract in cosmetic formulations like creams, lotions and shampoos and their evaluation.
 
Incorporation of prepared and standardized extract in formulations like syrups, mixtures and tablets and their evaluation as per Pharmacopoeial requirements.
Monograph analysis of herbal drugs from recent Pharmacopoeias
 
Determination of Aldehyde content
Determination of Phenol content
Determination of total alkaloids
 
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Textbook of Pharmacognos by Trease & Evans.
 
Textbook of Pharmacognos by Tyler, Brady & Robber.
 
Pharmacognosy by Kokate, Purohit and Gokhale
 
Essential of Pharmacognosy by Dr.S.H.Ansari
 
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry by V.D.Rangari
 
Pharmacopoeal standards for Ayurvedic Formulation (Council of Research in Indian Medicine & Homeopathy)
 
Mukherjee, P.W. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs: An Approach to Evaluation of Botanicals. Business Horizons Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2002.
 
 
BP604T: BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND PHARMACOKINETICS (Theory) 45 Hours
 
Scope:This subject is designed to impart knowledge and skills of Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics and their applications in pharmaceutical development, design of dose and dosage regimen and in solving the problems arising therein.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able to:
 
Understand the basic concepts in biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics and their significance.
 
Use of plasma drug concentration-time data to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters to describe the kinetics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, elimination.
 
To understand the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence of drug products and their significance.
 
Understand various pharmacokinetic parameters, their significance & applications.
 
Course Content:
 
UNIT-I 10 Hours Introduction to Biopharmaceutics
 
Absorption; Mechanisms of drug absorption through GIT, factors influencing drug absorption though GIT, absorption of drug from Non per oral extra-vascular routes, Distribution Tissue permeability of drugs, binding of drugs, apparent, volume of drug distribution, plasma and tissue protein binding of drugs, factors affecting
 
 
protein-drug
 
 
binding. Kinetics of protein binding, Clinical significance of protein
 
 
binding of drugs
 
 
UNIT- II
 
 
 
10 Hours
 
 
Elimination: Drug metabolism and basic understanding metabolic pathways renal excretion of drugs, factors affecting renal excretion of drugs, renal clearance, Non renal routes of drug excretion of drugs
 
Bioavailability and Bioequivalence: Definition and Objectives of bioavailability, absolute and relative bioavailability, measurement of bioavailability, in-vitro drug dissolution models, in-vitro-in-vivo correlations, bioequivalence studies, methods to enhance the dissolution rates and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.
 
UNIT- III10 Hours
 
Pharmacokinetics: Definition and introduction to Pharmacokinetics, Compartment models, Non compartment models, physiological models, One compartment open model. (a). Intravenous Injection (Bolus) (b). Intravenous infusion and (c) Extra vascular administrations. Pharmacokinetics parameters - KE ,t1/2,Vd,AUC,Ka, Clt and CLR- definitions methods of eliminations, understanding of their significance and application.
 
 
 
UNIT- IV08 Hours
 
Multicompartment models: Two compartment open model. IV bolus
 
Kinetics of multiple dosing, steady state drug levels, calculation of loading and mainetnance doses and their significance in clinical settins.
 
UNIT- V07 Hours
 
Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics: a. Introduction, b. Factors causing Non-linearity.
 
Michaelis-menton method of estimating parameters, Explanation with example of drugs.
 
 
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)
 
Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics by, Milo Gibaldi.
Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics; By Robert F Notari
 
Applied biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics, Leon Shargel and Andrew B.C.YU 4th edition,Prentice-Hall Inernational edition.USA
 
Bio pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics-A Treatise, By D. M. Brahmankar and Sunil B.Jaiswal,Vallabh Prakashan Pitampura, Delhi
Pharmacokinetics: By Milo Glbaldi Donald, R. Mercel Dekker Inc.
 
Hand Book of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, By Milo Gibaldi and Laurie Prescott
 
by
ADIS Health Science Press.
Biopharmaceutics; By Swarbrick
 
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Concepts and Applications: By Malcolm Rowland and
 
Thomas, N. Tozen, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1995.
 
Dissolution, Bioavailability and Bioequivalence, By Abdou H.M,
 
Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics-An introduction 4th edition Revised and expanded by Robert F Notari Marcel Dekker Inn, New York and Basel, 1987.
 
Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences, By Mack Publishing Company, Pennsylvnia.
 
 
BP605T: PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope:
Biotechnology has a long promise to revolutionize the biological sciences and technology.
 
Scientific application of biotechnology in the field of genetic engineering, medicine and fermentation technology makes the subject interesting.
 
Biotechnology is leading to new biological revolutions in diagnosis, prevention and cure of diseases, new and cheaper pharmaceutical drugs.
 
Biotechnology has already produced transgenic crops and animals and the future promises lot more.
 
It is basically a research-based subject.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to;
 
Understanding the importance of Immobilized enzymes in Pharmaceutical Industries
 
Genetic engineering applications in relation to production of pharmaceuticals
 
Importance of Monoclonal antibodies in Industries
Appreciate the use of microorganisms in fermentation technology
 
Unit I10 Hours
 
Brief introduction to Biotechnology with reference to Pharmaceutical Sciences.
 
Enzyme Biotechnology- Methods of enzyme immobilization and applications.
 
Biosensors- Working and applications of biosensors in Pharmaceutical Industries.
 
Brief introduction to Protein Engineering.
 
Use of microbes in industry. Production of Enzymes- General consideration - Amylase, Catalase, Peroxidase, Lipase, Protease, Penicillinase.
 
Basic principles of genetic engineering.
 
Unit II10 Hours
 
Study of cloning vectors, restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase.
 
Recombinant DNA technology. Application of genetic engineering in medicine.
 
Application of r DNA technology and genetic engineering in the production of:
 
Interferon ii) Vaccines- hepatitis- B iii) Hormones-Insulin.
 
Brief introduction to PCR
 
 
 
 
Unit III10 Hours
 
Types of immunity- humoral immunity, cellular immunity
 
Structure of Immunoglobulins
 
Structure and Function of MHC
 
Hypersensitivity reactions, Immune stimulation and Immune suppressions.
 
General method of the preparation of bacterial vaccines, toxoids, viral vaccine, antitoxins, serum-immune blood derivatives and other products relative to immunity.
 
Storage conditions and stability of official vaccines
 
Hybridoma technology- Production, Purification and Applications g)
 
Blood products and Plasma Substitutes.
 
Unit IV08Hours
 
Immuno blotting techniques- ELISA, Western blotting, Southern blotting. b) Genetic organization of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
 
Microbial genetics including transformation, transduction, conjugation, plasmids and transposons.
 
Introduction to Microbial biotransformation and applications.
 
Mutation: Types of mutation/mutants.
 
Unit V07 Hours
 
Fermentation methods and general requirements, study of media, equipments, sterilization methods, aeration process, stirring.
 
Large scale production fermenter design and its various controls.
 
Study of the production of - penicillins, citric acid, Vitamin B12, Glutamic acid, Griseofulvin,
 
Blood Products: Collection, Processing and Storage of whole human blood, dried human plasma, plasma Substitutes.
 
Recommended Books (Latest edition):
 
B.R. Glick and J.J. Pasternak: Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of
 
RecombinantDNA: ASM Press Washington D.C.
RA Goldshy et. al., : Kuby Immunology.
J.W. Goding: Monoclonal Antibodies.
 
J.M. Walker and E.B. Gingold: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology by Royal Society of Chemistry.
 
Zaborsky: Immobilized Enzymes, CRC Press, Degraland, Ohio.
 
S.B. Primrose: Molecular Biotechnology (Second Edition) Blackwell Scientific Publication.
 
Stanbury F., P., Whitakar A., and Hall J., S., Principles of fermentation technology, 2nd edition, Aditya books Ltd., New Delhi
 
 
 
 
BP606T: PHARMACEUTICAL QUALITY ASSURANCE (Theory)
 
45 Hours
 
Scope: This course deals with the various aspects of quality control and quality assurance aspects of pharmaceutical industries. It deals with the important aspects like cGMP, QC tests, documentation, quality certifications and regulatory affairs.
 
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able to:
 
understand the cGMP aspects in a pharmaceutical industry appreciate the importance of documentation
 
understand the scope of quality certifications applicable to pharmaceutical industries
 
understand the responsibilities of QA & QC departments
 
Course content:
 
UNIT – I10 Hours
 
Quality Assurance and Quality Management concepts: Definition and concept of Quality control, Quality assurance and GMP
 
Total Quality Management (TQM): Definition, elements, philosophies
 
ICH Guidelines: purpose, participants, process of harmonization, Brief overview of QSEM, with special emphasis on Q-series guidelines, ICH stability testing guidelines
 
Quality by design (QbD): Definition, overview, elements of QbD program, tools
 
ISO 9000 & ISO14000: Overview, Benefits, Elements, steps for registration
 
NABL accreditation : Principles and procedures
 
UNIT - II10 Hours
 
Organization and personnel: Personnel responsibilities, training, hygiene and personal records. Premises: Design, construction and plant layout, maintenance, sanitation, environmental control, utilities and maintenance of sterile areas, control of contamination.
 
Equipments and raw materials: Equipment selection, purchase specifications, maintenance, purchase specifications and maintenance of stores for raw materials.
 
UNIT – III10 Hours
 
Quality Control: Quality control test for containers, rubber closures and secondary packing
 
 
materials.
 
Good Laboratory Practices: General Provisions, Organization and Personnel, Facilities, Equipment, Testing Facilities Operation, Test and Control Articles, Protocol for Conduct of a Nonclinical Laboratory Study, Records and Reports, Disqualification of Testing Facilities
 
UNIT – IV08 Hours
 
Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling of return good, recalling and waste disposal.
 
Document maintenance in pharmaceutical industry: Batch Formula Record, Master
 
Formula Record, SOP, Quality audit, Quality Review and Quality documentation, Reports and documents, distribution records.
 
UNIT – V 07 Hours Calibration and Validation: Introduction, definition and general principles of
 
calibration, qualification and validation, importance and scope of validation, types of validation, validation master plan. Calibration of pH meter, Qualification of UV-Visible spectrophotometer, General principles of Analytical method Validation.
Warehousing: Good warehousing practice, materials management
 
 
Recommended Books: (Latest Edition)
 
Quality Assurance Guide by organization of Pharmaceutical Products of India.
 
Good Laboratory Practice Regulations, 2nd Edition, Sandy Weinberg Vol. 69.
Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals- A compendium of Guide lines and Related materials Vol I WHO Publications.
 
A guide to Total Quality Management- Kushik Maitra and Sedhan K Ghosh
 
How to Practice GMP’s – P P Sharma.
ISO 9000 and Total Quality Management – Sadhank G Ghosh
 
The International Pharmacopoeia – Vol I, II, III, IV- General Methods of Analysis and Quality specification for Pharmaceutical Substances, Excipients and Dosage forms
 
Good laboratory Practices – Marcel Deckker Series
 
ICH guidelines, ISO 9000 and 14000 guidelines
 
 
Scheme of Evaluation (Choice Based Credit System)
 
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.)
 
SEVENTH SEMESTER
 
 
 
S. No.SubjectSubject NameL--T--PT/P MarksSessionalTotalCredit
Code(ESE)
Theory
1.RPH-733/Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VIII3---0---070301003
(Medicinal Chemistry-III)/
RPH-741Pharmaceutics-XI
Pharmaceutical Marketing &
Management
2.RPH-734/Pharmaceutics-IX3---0---070301003
(Biopharmaceutics &
Pharmacokinetics)/
RPH-740Pharmaceutics-X
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
3.RPH-735Pharmacology-III3---0---070301003
(Pharmacology &
Pharmacovigilance)
4.RPH-736Pharmacognosy-IV3---0---070301003
5.RPH-737Pharmaceutical Analysis-III3---0---070301003
(Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality
Assurance)
Practical/ Project
6.RPH-734P/Pharmaceutics-IX0---0---450501002
(Biopharmaceutics &
Pharmacokinetics) Practical/
RPH-740PPharmaceutics-X
(Pharmaceutical Biotechnology)
Practical
7.RPH-735PPharmacology-III0---0---450501002
(Pharmacology &
Pharmacovigilance) Practical
8.RPH-736PPharmacognosy-IV Practical0---0---450501002
9.RPH-737PPharmaceutical Analysis-III0---0---450501002
(Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality
Assurance) Practical
10.RPH-738PHospital Training-II50501001
TOTAL100024
 
 
EIGHTH SEMESTER
 
 
 
S. No.SubjectSubject NameL--T--PT/P MarksSessionalTotalCredit
Code(ESE)
Theory
1.RPH-839Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IX3---0---070301003
(Chemistry of Natural Products)
2.RPH-840/Pharmaceutics-X3---0---070301003
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology/
RPH-834Pharmaceutics-IX
(Biopharmaceutics &
Pharmacokinetics)
3.RPH-841/Pharmaceutics-XI3---0---070301003
Pharmaceutical Marketing &
Management/
RPH-833Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VIII
(Medicinal Chemistry-III)
4.RPH-842Pharmaceutics-XII3---0---070301003
(Food & Nutraceuticals)
5.RPH-843Elective3---0---070301003
 
(Computational Methods in Drug Design
Good Manufacturing Practices
Clinical Pharmacy
Standardization of Herbal Drugs
Research Methodology)
 
Practical/ Project
 
 
6.RPH-839PPharmaceutical Chemistry-IX0---0---450501002
(Chemistry of Natural Products)
Practical
7.RPH-840P/Pharmaceutics-X0---0---450501002
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
RPH-834PPractical/
Pharmaceutics-IX
(Biopharmaceutics &
Pharmacokinetics) Practical
8.RPH-842PPharmaceutics-XII0---0---450501002
(Food & Neutraceuticals) Practical
9.RPH-843PElective0---0---450501002
 
Computational Methods in Drug Design Project
Good Manufacturing Practices Project
Clinical Pharmacy Project
Standardization of Herbal Drugs
 
roject
Research Methodology Project
 
10.RPH-844PReport on Industrial/ Research50501002
Laboratory Visit
TOTAL100024
 
 
SEVENTH SEMESTER
 
RPH-733/RPH-833
 
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-VIII (MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY-III)
 
Classification, mode of action, uses, recent advances and structure activity relationship of the following classes of drugs (Synthetic procedures of individually mentioned drugs only).
 
Unit I
 
Steroidal drugs: Introduction, classification, nomenclature, and stereochemistry of-
 
Androgens and anabolic steroids: Testosterone, Stanazolol. Estrogens and progestogens:
 
Progesterone, Estradiol. Adrenocorticoids: Prednisolone, Dexamethasone.
 
Unit II
 
Chemotherapy of microbial infections:
 
Antibiotics: Penicillin, Semi-synthetic Penicillins (Ampicillin), Cephalosporins (Cefepime), Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines (Doxycycline), Aminoglycosides, Macrolides. Antifungals: Ketoconazole and Clotrimazole.
 
Antiseptics & disinfectants: Chlorhexidine.
 
Unit III
 
Chemotherapy of microbial infections:
 
Synthetic antibacterials: Sulphonamides (Sulphamethoxazole, Sulphadiazine, Sulphacetamide), Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones (Nalidixic acid, Ofloxacin). Antimycobacterial agents: PAS, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Dapsone.
 
Unit IV
 
Chemotherapy of parasitic infections:
 
Antimalarials: Chloroquine, Primaquine, Pyrimethamine.
 
Antiamoebics: Ornidazole, Diloxanide.
 
Anthelmintics: Albendazole.
 
Unit V
 
Cancerchemotherapy:Alkylatingagents(Chlorambucil,Carmustine),
 
Antimetabolites
 
(Methotrexate, 5-Fluorouracil), Anticancer antibiotics (Doxorubicin).
 
Antiviral/Anti-HIV agents: Amantadine, Acyclovir, Zidovudine, Saquinavir, Raltegravir.
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Abraham D.J., Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Block J.H. and Beale J.M., Wilson and Gisvold’s Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Lemke  T.L.,  Williams  D.A.,  Roche  V.F.  and  Zito  S.W.,  Foyes  Principles  of
 
 
Vardanyan R.S. and Hruby V.J., Synthesis of Essential Drugs, Elsevier, Philadelphia.
 
Singh H. and Kapoor V.K., Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
 
Nogrady T., Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach, Oxford University Press, New York.
 
Patrick G.L., An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, Oxford University Press, New York.
 
Hansch C., Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry, Pergamon Press, U.K.
 
Dharuman J., Chemistry of Synthetic Drugs, AITBS Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Mann F.G. and Saunders B.C., Practical Organic Chemistry, Orient Longman Limited,
 
New York.
 
11. Furniss B.S., Hannaford A.J., Smith P.W.G. and Tatchell A. R., Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education Ltd.), New Delhi.
 
RPH-734/RPH834
 
PHARMACEUTICS-IX (BIOPHARMACEUTICS & PHARMACOKINETICS)
 
 
Unit I
 
Introduction to biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics and their role in formulation development. Mechanism of absorption, physicochemical and pharmaceutical factors influencing absorption, drug distribution, volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. Plasma protein binding and its significance.
 
Unit II
 
Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement.
 
Compartment models and non-compartment models: Definition and scope. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption: Zero order and first order absorption rate constant. Determination of absorption rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and Loo-Reigelman method.
 
 
Unit III
 
Compartment kinetics: One compartment and preliminary information of multicompartment models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intra venous (I.V.) bolus and I.V. infusion.
 
Unit IV
 
Dosage adjustment in patients with renal and hepatic disease. Clinical Pharmacokinetics:
 
Definition and scope.
 
Unit V
 
Brief introduction to bioavailability and bioequivalence: Definition and significance.
 
Measurement of bioavailability.
 
Introduction to in-vivo in-vitro correlation (IVIVC) and its significance. Review of regulatory requirements for conduction of bioequivalence studies.
 
RPH-734P/RPH834P
 
PHARMACEUTICS-IX (BIOPHARMACEUTICS & PHARMACOKINETICS) PRACTICAL
 
 
Suggested Practicals
 
In-vitro drug release study of the any powder, uncoated tablet, capsule, film-coated tablet, sustained release tablet and fast release (M.D, Dispersible etc.) tablet using various dissolution media.
 
To determine the % protein binding of some drugs.
 
To determine the effect of protein binding on drug bioavailability.
 
To calculate various Pharmacokinetic parameters from zero order drug release data, first order drug release data, blood data of I.V. bolus injection (one compartment model) and urinary excretion data of I.V. bolus. Injection using both methods (Rate of elimination & sigma minus method one compartment model).
 
To study in-vitro drug- drug interactions.
 
To study the passive diffusion of a drug using cellophane membrane.
 
To study the passive diffusion of a drug using egg membrane.
 
To determine the various Pharmacokinetic parameters from the given blood data of oral administration of dosage form.
 
Determination of bioavailability by urinary method.
 
Determination of bioequivalence by dissolution method.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Notari, R.E, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics-An introduction, Marcel Dekker Inc. New York.
 
Rowland M, and Tozer T.N. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Lea and Febriger, New York.
 
Wagner J.G. Fundamentals of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Drugs Intelligence Publishers, Hamilton.
 
Wagner J.G. Pharmacokinetics for the Pharmaceutical Scientist, Technomic Publishing A.G. Basel, Switzerland.
 
Gibaldi, M., Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Pharma Book Syndicate, Hyderabad.
 
Robert, Rodriguezdiaz, Analytical Techniques for Biopharmaceuticals Development.
 
Curry, S. H., Drug Disposition & Pharmacokinetics, Pharma Book Syndicate, Hyderabad.
 
RPH-735
 
PHARMACOLOGY-III (PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACOVIGILANCE)
 
 
Unit I
 
Pharmacology of endocrine system: Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, thyroid hormones and thyroid drugs. Parathormone, Calcitonin and Vitamin D, Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and Glucagon. Corticosteroids, androgens and anabolic steroids, Estrogens, Progesterone and oral contraceptives, drugs acting on the uterus.
 
Unit II
 
Chemotherapy: General principles of chemotherapy. Sulfonamides, Quinolones, Beta-lactam antibiotics, Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Aminoglycosides.
 
Chemotherapy of parasitic infections: Tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, fungal infections, viral
 
diseases.
 
Unit III
 
Naturopathy: History, definitions, mechanism and its effect on various systems, hydrotherapy, mud therapy, chromotherapy, acupressure, aromatherapy and therapeutic massage.
 
Unit IV
 
Pharmacovigilance: Scope, definition and aims of pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology, therapeutic index- LD50 and ED50, drug interactions.
 
Adverse drug reactions: Classification, mechanism, predisposing factors and causality assessment. Role of clinical pharmacist in reporting, evaluation, monitoring, prevention and management of ADR, drug induced diseases affecting different organ systems.
 
Fixed dose drug combinations (FDDCs): Rational and irrational combinations, FDDCs in Indian
 
scenario.
 
Unit V
 
Epidemiological methods: Case control study: Selection of cases, selection of controls, matching, measurements of exposure, analysis, odds ratio, bias in case control study, advantages, disadvantages.
 
Cohort study: Concept, framework, combination of prospective and retrospective cohort study, relative risk, attributable risk, advantages, disadvantages.
 
RPH-735P
 
PHARMACOLOGY-III (PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACOVIGILANCE) PRACTICAL
 
Suggested Practicals
 
To calculate the pA2 value of Atropine and Chlorpheniramine.
 
Bioassay of Ach, Histamine and Oxytocin on suitable isolated preparations using
 
matching assay, bracketing assay, interpolation, three point assay and four point assay.
 
3.Bioassay of histamine and acetylcholine using matching and interpolation method on rat and guinea pig.
 
The experiments should be conducted using software, wherever possible.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED:
 
Rang M.P., Dale MM, Riter JM, Pharmacology Churchill Livingstone, China.
 
Tripathi, K.D. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, Jay Pee Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Satoskar & Bhandarkar: Pharmacology & Pharmacotheropeutics, Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.
 
Ghosh M.N. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology, Scientific Book Agency, Calcutta.
 
Katzung, B.G. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, Prentice Hall International, New Delhi.
 
Ronald D. Mann & Elizabeth B. Andrews, Pharmacovigilance, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England.
 
Waller and Patrick, An Introduction to Pharmacovigilance, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England.
 
Mohanta G.P., Elementary Pharmacovigilance, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Mohanta G.P., Manna P.K., Textbook of Pharmacovigilance: Concept and Practice, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Grover J.K., Experiments in Pharmacy & Pharmacology, CBS Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Kulkarni S.K., Hand Book of Experimental Pharmacology, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
 
Barar F.S.K : Text Book of Pharmacology, Interprint, New Delhi.
 
Goodman & Gilman, The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics, Eds: Hardman J.G., Limbird Le, Molinoss P.B., Ruddon R.W. & Gil A.G., Pergamon Press, U.K.
 
Laurene, D.R. & Bennet P.N.; Clinical Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone, Harlow, England.
 
Paul L., Principles of Pharmacology, Chapman and Hall, New York.
 
Ravi  Shanker  K.,  Kiranmayi  G.V.N.,  Pharmacology:  A  Companion  Handbook
 
with Illustrations, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Singh S. J., History and Philosophy of Naturopathy, Nature Cure Council of Medical Research, Lucknow.
 
Bakhru H. K., Complete Handbook of Nature Cure, Jaico Publishing House, New Delhi.
 
Pizzorno J. E., Murray M. T., The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Simon & Schuster, New York, USA.
 
Sheffield Bioscience Programs, U.K. ISBN. 1-8747558-02-6.
 
RPH-736
 
PHARMACOGNOSY-III
 
 
Unit I
 
Systematic study of source, cultivation, collection, processing, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes/adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following alkaloid containing drugs-Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco, Areca and Lobelia.
 
Tropane: Belladona, Hyoscyamus, Datura, Coca and Withania. Quinoline and isoquinoline:
 
Cinchona, Ipecac and Opium. Indole: Ergot, Rauwolfia, Catharanthus and Nux-vomica.
 
Unit II
 
Imidazole: Pilocarpus.
 
Steroidal: Veratrum and Kurchi.
 
Alkaloidal amine: Ephedra and Colchicum.
 
Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Purines: Coffee and Tea Quinazoline: Vasaka.
 
Unit III
 
Production and utilization of phytoconstituents: Calcium sennosides, Diosgenin, Solasodine, Podophyllotoxins, Tropane alkaloids, Isoquinoline alkaloids and Quinoline alkaloids.
 
Unit IV
 
Plant tissue culture: Historical development of plant tissue culture, type of culture, nutritional requirements, growth and maintenance, factors affecting plant tissue culture. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacy.
 
 
Unit V
 
Introduction to herbal fingerprinting using HPTLC technique. Introduction to herbal drug interactions.
 
Introduction to bioactive compounds enhancing bioavailability such as- Piperine, Vitamin K.
 
 
 
RPH736-P
 
PHAMACOGNOSY-IV PRACTICAL
 
Suggested Practicals
 
To study the morphology and microscopy of Datura and Withania.
 
To study the morphology and microscopy of Ipecac and Rauwolfia.
 
To study the morphology and microscopy of Catharanthus and Nux-vomica.
 
To study the morphology and microscopy of Ephedra and Kurchi.
 
To study the morphology and microscopy of Solanum and Vasaka.
 
a) Morphology of Areca, Colchicum.
 
b) Transverse section of Catharanthus leaf and Kurchi bark.
 
To study the TLC profile of Catharanthus leaf.
 
To study the TLC profile of Withania root.
 
Chemical test of Tea, Tobacco, Datura and Withania.
 
Chemical test of Nux-vomica, Ephedra and Kurchi.
 
Preparation of different callus cultures using various parts of plants.
 
Study of micopropogation using callus culture.
 
Effect of various plant hormones on micropropogation.
 
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Trease, G.E., and Evans, W.C., Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindall East Baorne, U.K.
 
Wallis. T.E. “Text Book of Pharmacognosy” J&A Churchill Ltd., London.
 
Kokate C.K., Gokhale A.S., Gokhale S.B., Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, Nirali Prakashan.
 
Tyler V.E., Lynnr B. and Robbers J.E., Pharmacognosy, 8th Edition, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
 
Harborne J.B., Phytochemical Methods, Chapman & Hall International Edition, London.
 
Medicinal Plants of India, Vol. I & II, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi.
 
Nadkarni A.K., Indian Materia Medica, Vol- 1&2, Popular Prakashan (P) Ltd., Bombay.
 
Sukh Dev, A Selection of Prime Ayurvedic Plant Drugs, Anamaya Publisher New Delhi.
 
Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I & II, ICMR & RRL, Jammu.
 
Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia, Govt. of India.
 
The Wealth of India, Raw Materials (All volumes), Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi.
 
 
Rastogi R. P. and Mehrotra B.N., Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants I-IV, Publications & Information Directorate/Central Drug Research Institute, New Delhi.
 
Wallis T.E., Analytical Microscopy, J&A Churchill Ltd., London.
 
Kokate C.K., Practical Pharmacognosy, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi.
 
Iyengar M.A., Pharmacognosy of Powdered Crude Drugs, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Iyengar, M.A. and Nayak S.C.K., Anatomy of Powdered Crude Drugs, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
 
RPH-737
 
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS-III
 
(PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS & QUALITY ASSURANCE)
 
Unit I
 
Ultra violet and visible spectroscopy: Principle and origin of spectra, quantitative laws, chromophores and auxochromes, factors affecting absorption, instrumentation- single and double beam spectrophotometer, Woodward-Fieser rule, applications.
 
Infra-red spectroscopy: Principle, effect of hydrogen bonding and conjugation on absorption band, instrumentation, interpretation of IR spectra of simple compounds (Ethanol, Benzaldehyde). FTIR, applications of IR spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis.
 
Unit II
 
NMR spectroscopy: Principle of 1H-NMR, chemical shift and factors affecting it, shielding and desheilding, spin-spin coupling and coupling constant, spin-spin splitting, instrumentation, NMR active compounds and study of 1H-NMR spectra of- Ethanol, Benzaldehyde. Introduction to13C-NMR.
 
Unit III
 
Mass spectrometry: Principle, fragmentation pattern in relation to molecular structure and functional groups including McLafferty rearrangement, ionization techniques (CI, FAB, ESI, MALDI), instrumentation, applications, mass spectra of some simple compounds (Ethanol, Benzaldehyde).
 
Unit IV
 
Miscellaneous techniques: Principle, instrumentation and applications of atomic absorption spectroscopy, fluorimetry and flame photometry.
 
Introduction to gel electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
 
Unit V
 
Quality Assurance: Basic concept of quality, difference between QC and QA, quality audit, types of quality audits, concept of TQM, ISO 9000 series. Elementary study of WHO guidelines. Different documents prepared by QA department (batch manufacturing record, master formula record, validation master plan). Basic concept of validation, types of validation, different validation parameters, protocols for process validation.
 
 
RPH-737P
 
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS-III
 
(PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS & QUALITY ASSURANCE) PRACTICAL
 
 
Determination of λmax of different compounds by UV-visible spectrophotometry.
 
Verification of Beer’s law.
 
Determination of unknown concentration of some drugs by UV-visible spectrophotometry.
 
Simultaneous estimation of multi-component drugs by UV-visible spectrophotometry.
 
Determination of factors which affect λmax by UV-visible spectrophotometry.
 
Interpretation of IR, Mass and NMR spectra.
 
Assay of official formulations containing single and more active ingredients using instrumental techniques.
Assay of pharmaceutical substances by flame spectrophotometry (NaCl, KCl oral sachet).
 
Separation of a protein mixture using gel electrophoresis.
 
Formation and maintenance of different documents/records formed by QA department.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Pharmacopoeia of India, Ministry of Health, Govt. of India.
 
Becket A. H. and Stenlake J. B., Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry Vol. I and II, The Athlone Press of the University of London.
 
Chatten L. G., A text book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol. I & II, Marcel Dekker, New York.
 
Willard H.H.,Merrit L.L., Dean J.A.,Settle P.A., Instrumental Methods of analysis, Van Nostrand Renhold, New York.
 
Obonson J.W.R., Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 1970.
 
Parikh V.H., Absorption Spectroscopy of Organic Molecules, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., London.
 
Silverstein R.M.,and Webster F.X., Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, John Wiley & Sons.
 
Skoog V., Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Holler-Neimen.
 
Kemp W., Organic spectroscopy, 3rdEdition, Palgrave, New York.
 
Kalsi P.S., Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.
 
 
Pavia D.L.,Lampman G.M., and Kriz G.S., Introduction to spectroscopy, 3rd Edition, Harcourt College Publishers, Philadelphia.
 
Florey K., Analytical Profile of Drug Substance (All volume), Academic Press, Elsevier.
 
WHO-Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals, Vol. I & II, AITBS Publisher & Distributors, Delhi.
Berry I.R. and Harpaz, D., Validation of API, 2ndEdition, CRC Press.
 
 
RPH-738P
 
HOSPITAL TRAINIGNG-II
 
Training of students at a hospital establishment for a minimum duration of 45 days. The hospital training shall include: First aid (wound dressing, artificial respiration etc.), different routes of injection, study of patient observation charts, prescriptions and dispensing, simple diagnostic reports etc.
May be performed at the end of the 6th semester.
 
 
EIGHTH SEMESTER
 
RPH-839
 
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTYRY-IX (CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)
 
 
Unit I
 
General methods of isolation and separation of plant constituents, qualitative tests for the detection of plant constituents. Application of spectral techniques in the structure determination of natural products.
 
Biogenetic investigations and basic metabolic pathways (Alkaloids, Terpenes, Steroids). Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance (Atropine, Quinine, Papaverine, Morphine and Reserpine).
 
Unit II
 
Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation of alkaloids: Tropanes (Atropine); Phenanthrenes
(Morphine); Quinolines (Quinine); Isoquinolines (Papaverine); Indoles (Reserpine).
 
 
Unit III
 
Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation of-
 
Glycosides: Digoxin. Flavonoids: Quercetin. Lignans: Podophyllotoxin. Purines: Caffeine.
 
Unit IV
 
Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation of- Terpenoids: Camphor, Menthol, Citral.
 
Carotenoids: β- Carotene.
 
Vitamins: α -Tocopherol.
 
Quassinoids: Quassin.
 
 
Unit V
 
Natural allergens, photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Role of natural products in drug discovery and development.
 
Recent developments of natural products used as anticancer agents, antidiabetics, antimalarials and immunomodulators.
 
 
RPH-839P
 
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTYRY-IX
 
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS) PRACTICAL
 
 
Suggested Practicals
 
Isolation of Caffeine from tea leaves.
 
Isolation of Piperine from black pepper.
 
Isolation of Hesperidin from orange peel.
 
Isolation of Clove oil from clove.
 
Isolation of Caraway oil from caraway.
 
Isolation of Cumin oil from cumin.
 
To study the TLC profile of extracted oils.
 
To perform the column chromatography of any available herb.
 
To study the paper chromatographic profile of glycone portion separated from senna.
 
To isolate the active constituent of any available drug with the help of preparative TLC.
 
Quantitative determination of Ascorbic Acid present in amla.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Brain K.R. and Turner T.D., The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceutical, Wright, Bristol.
 
Kokate C.K., “Practical Pharmacognosy” Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi.
 
Stahl E., Thin Layer Chromatography: A Laboratory Hand Book, Springer International Edition, New York.
 
Harborne J.B., Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis, Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 
Dewick P.M., Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., England.
 
Wagner H., Plant Drug Analysis, Springer, Berlin.
 
Cutler S.J. and Cutler H.G., Biologically Active Natural Products: Pharmaceuticals, CRC Press, London.
 
Manitto P., Biosynthesis of Natural Products, BSP Books Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad.
 
Finar I.L.,Organic chemistry, Volume II: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural Products, Pearson Education, New Jersey.
 
Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Indian Drug Manufacturers Association and Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu.
 
Agarwal O.P., Organic Chemistry, Natural Products, Krishna Prakashan Media (P) Ltd., Meerut.
 
Evans V.C., Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, Harcourt Publishers Ltd., Sydney.
 
Wallis T. E., Textbook of Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
 
Kokate C.K., Practical Pharmacognosy, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
 
Jarald E.E. and Jarald S.E., Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 
Tyler V.E., “Pharmacognosy” Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
 
Deore S.L., Khadabadi S.S., Baviskar B.A., Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A Comprehensive Approach, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Prasad M. R, Rao A.R., Advanced Medicinal Chemistry: A Laboratory Guide, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
RPH-840/ RPH-740
 
PHARMACEUTICS-X (PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY)
 
 
Unit I
 
Immunology and immunological preparations: Principles, antigen and haptens, immune system, cellular and humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications, standardization and storage of vaccine.
 
Unit II
 
Recombinant DNA technology: A brief introduction to genetic engineering and techniques, production of r-DNA and their application, development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies and their application, protoplast fusion and biotechnological production of products such as Insulin and Somatotropin.
 
Unit III
 
Antibiotics: Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics. Fermentor: Basic design, control of different parameters and application. Isolation of mutants and factors affecting mutation.
 
Unit IV
 
Microbial transformation: Introduction, types of reactions mediated by microorganisms, selection of organisms, methodology of biotransformation, process improvements with special reference to steroids.
 
Unit V
 
Enzyme immobilization: Sources of enzymes, techniques of immobilization of enzymes and cell, advantages and limitation of immobilization, application of immobilization in pharmacy. Biotechnological production and pharmaceutical application of enzymes such as penicillinase, α-galactosidase, amylases and proteases.
 
RPH-840P/ RPH-740P
 
PHARMACEUTICS-X (PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY) PRACTICAL
 
 
Suggested Practicals
 
Estimation of protein in given sample.
 
Production of protoplast fused cells by chemical method.
 
Production of protoplast fused cells by mechanical method.
 
Estimation of immunological reaction (blood group etc.).
 
Assay of antibiotics.
 
Screening of soil for antibiotic producing microorganisms.
 
Immobilization of drug.
 
Immobilization of enzyme.
 
Immobilization of cell.
 
Protein estimation by gel electrophoresis.
 
Isolation of enzymes from natural sources.
 
 
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
 
Vyas S.P. and Dixit V.K., Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, CBS Publication, New Delhi.
 
Kieslich K. , Biotechnology, Verleg Chernie, Switzerland.
 
Standury P.F.,Whitaker A. & Hall S.J. ,Principles of Fermentation, Aditya Book Private Limited, New Delhi.
 
Crueger W. & Crueger A, Biotechnology- A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, Panima Publishing Corporation, Delhi.
 
RPH-841/ RPH-741
 
PHARMACEUTICS-XI (PHARMACEUTICAL MARKETING & MANAGEMENT)
 
 
 
Unit I
 
Concepts of management: Definition, administrative management (planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling). Entrepreneurship development, introduction to operative management (personnel, materials, production, financial management).
 
Unit II
 
Principles of management: Coordination, communication, motivation, decision making, leadership, innovation and creativity.
Production management: A brief study of the different aspects of production management, methodology of activities: performance evaluation, review technique, maintenance management.
 
 
Unit III
 
Pharmaceutical marketing: Introduction to pharmaceutical marketing. Functions, buying, selling, transportation, storage and finance. Feedback information, channels of distribution, wholesale, retail, department store. Introduction to e-commerce (online shopping, online banking, pretail, marketing to prospective and established customers) and start up business.
 
Unit IV
 
Salesmanship: Principle of sales promotion, advertising, ethics of sales, merchandising, literature, detailing, recruitment, training, performance appraisal of sales force.
 
Unit V
 
Market research: Definition, steps and limitations of market research. Market segmentation and market targeting. Major concepts in demand measurement, estimating current demand. Geo-demo- graphic analysis. Estimating industry sales.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Beri, Marketing Research .Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
 
Chary S.N, Production and Operations Management. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing CompanyLimited, New Delhi.
 
Datta A.K., Materials Management. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.
 
Massie L. Joseph, Essentials of Management. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited,
 
New Delhi.
 
Shreenivasan K.R., An Introduction to Industrial Management. Vikas Publishing House Private Limited, New Delhi.
 
Daver Rustam S., Salesmanship and Publicity. Vikas Publishing House Private Limited, New Delhi.
 
Mukopadhyay S., Pharmaceutical Selling, Sterling Publishers.
 
Koontz H, Weihrich H, Essentials of Management. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
 
G Vidya Sagar, Pharmaceutical Industrial Management, Pharma Med Press, Hyderabad.
 
Micky C Smith, Principles of Pharmaceutical Marketing.CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
 
Chaganti S.R., Pharmaceutical Marketing in India: Concept, strategy and cases. Pharma Med Press, Hyderabad.
 
RPH-842
 
PHARMACEUTICS-XII (FOOD & NEUTRACEUTICALS)
 
 
 
Unit I
 
Introduction to food technology.
 
Food Processing: Freezing, changes in food during refrigerated storage, progressive freezing, Ice crystal damage, effect of dehydration, microwave heating and drying methods on food products.
 
Unit II
 
Food packaging and preservation: Properties of packaging material used for food packaging, influence of packaging material on changes of food stuffs, brief description of packaging of frozen, dried products and thermally processed foods. Brief description of food preservation and its methods.
 
 
Unit III
 
Neutraceuticals: Introduction, classification, categories and rational of use of neutraceuticals. Brief description to dietary supplements, fortified foods, functional foods and phytoneutraceuticals.
 
Unit IV
 
Development and marketing of neutraceutical products: Supercritical fluid extraction technology-basics and application for extraction of neutraceuticals from various sources, Packaging, label claims. Regulatory aspects of neutraceutical products in India.
 
Unit V
 
Testing of neutraceuticals and food products: Testing of microbial load, nutritional value, heavy metals, calorific value and neutraceutical label claim test.
 
Brief introduction to Agmark, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
 
RPH-842P
 
PHARMACEUTICS-XII (FOOD & NEUTRACEUTICALS) PRACTICALS
 
 
Suggested Practicals
 
Preparation of traditional health products e.g. Gulkand, Amla syrup
 
Formulation of health drinks.
 
Preparation and testing of some food products.
 
Testing of food packaging materials.
 
Preparation and testing of some neutraceuticals.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Potter, N. M., Food Science, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
 
Manay, S. and Shadaksharaswami, M., Foods: Facts and Principles, New Age Publishers, New Delhi.
 
Frazier W.C. and Westhoff, D.C., Food Microbiology, TMH, New Delhi.
 
Krammer, A. and Twigg B.A., Quality control for food industry, Third edition, AVI, West port.
 
Ranganna S., Handbook of Analysis and Quality control for Fruit and Vegetables Products, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
 
Girdharilal, Preservation of Food and Vegetables, ICAR, New Delhi.
 
Fellows P., Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Ellis Horwood Ltd, Horwood.
 
Earle R. L., Unit Operations in Food Processing, Pergamon Press, New York.
 
Deore, S. L. Khadbadi S. S., and Baviskar B. A., Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A Comprehensive Approach, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Robert E.C., Wildman, R., Taylor C. Wallace., Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Second Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
 
ELECTIVE
 
RPH-843(A)
 
COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN DRUG DESIGN
 
 
Unit I
 
Introduction to drug design concept, rational approaches of drug design, role of computational chemistry in drug design. The concept of drug likeness and druggability.
 
Chemometrics: Introduction to multivariate analysis, linear (PCA, MLR, PLS) and non-linear methods, validation tools. Introduction to some statistical softwares (such as; SPSS, Graph Pad Prism etc.).
 
Unit II
 
Molecular Modeling: Introduction to the principles of molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, molecular dynamics and their applications in drug design.
 
Unit III
 
Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR): Basic concepts of QSAR, molecular descriptors (2D and 3D parameters), biological parameters, tools and techniques, quantitative models, validation of models, introduction to 2D and 3D QSAR methodologies.
 
Unit IV
 
Virtual screening: Introduction to some molecule databases. Ligand based and structure based virtual screening. Similarity searching, various methods of similarity searching and their applications in virtual screening: QSAR modeling, pharmacophore modeling, shape based screening, fingerprint based screening etc.
 
Unit V
 
Structure based drug design: Protein Data Bank, molecular graphics, design of enzyme inhibitors, receptor based drug design, molecular docking and protein homology modeling. Introduction to bioinformatics and some drug design softwares (free and commercially available).
 
RPH-843(A)P
 
COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN DRUG DESIGN PROJECT
 
 
Projects based on-
 
To perform the Hansch and Free-Wilson analysis for the given dataset.
 
To develop and validate a 3D-QSAR model on a given dataset.
 
To develop and validate a 3D-Pharmacophore model on a given dataset.
 
To create a 3D-QSAR based hypothesis for virtual screening on a small molecule dataset.
 
To create a shape-based pharmacophore query on a set of aligned molecules and perform a virtual screening on a small molecule dataset.
 
To perform the virtual screening on a small molecule dataset using different fingerprint methods.
 
To perform molecular docking simulation and study various non-covalent interaction in protein-ligand complex.
 
To perform a homology modeling for a given target using modeler.
 
To perform the structure based virtual screening on a small molecule dataset.
 
To perform the different machine learning methods on a given dataset.
 
To perform the drug-likeness (ADMET) for small molecules.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Patrick G.L., An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
 
Perun T.J. and Propst C.L., Computer-aided Drug Design Methods and Applications, Saurabh Prakashan Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
 
Veerapandian P., Structure-based Drug Design, Sirohi Brothers Pvt. Ltd., Noida.
 
Burger A., A Guide to the Chemical Basis of Drug Design, A Wiley Interscience Publication (John Wiley & Sons), New York.
 
Wermuth C.G., The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry, Elsevier.
 
Purcell W.P., Bass G.E., Clayton J.M., Strategy of Drug Design: A Guide to Biological Activity, Pharmamed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Nogrady T., Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach, Oxford University Press, NewYork.
 
Abraham D.J., Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Ananda Kumar T.D., Elementary Pharmacoinformatics, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
RPH-843(B)
 
GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES
 
 
Unit I
 
Introduction to good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical practices (GCP) and good laboratory practices (GLP). Schedule M.
 
Standard operating procedure (SOP): Introduction, preparation, validation and revision.
 
 
Unit II
 
Documentation: Protocols, forms and maintenance of records in pharmaceutical industry, preparation of document for investigational new drug (IND), new drug application (NDA), abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) and export registration.
 
Unit III
 
Introduction to 21-Code of federal regulations. Current good manufacturing practices (c-GMP) guidelines according to United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), difference between GMP and c-GMP.
 
Unit IV
 
Pharmaceutical product recall: Recall classification, strategy for effective recall, FDA requested recall, firm initiated recall, recall status reports, termination of recall. Introduction to finished product reprocessing and salvaging.
 
 
Unit V
 
Sampling: Introduction, WHO guidelines, sampling plans and techniques, operating characteristics curves, maintenance of sampling records of finished product and packaging material.
 
RPH-843(B)P
 
GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES PROJECT
 
 
Projects based on-
 
Study the steps to generate SOP.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Autoclave.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Dissolution apparatus.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Centrifuge.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Balance (electronic and dispensing).
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Cleaning.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Hot air oven.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Disintegration apparatus.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Friability apparatus.
 
Generation and validation of SOP for Incubator.
 
Generation of Master formula record.
 
Generation of Batch formula record.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Willing, Tuckerman and Hitchings, Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals, Marcel Dekker, New York.
 
Garfield, Quality Assurance Principles for Analytical Laboratories, Published by Oxford University Press, USA.
 
Potdar M. A., Current Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals. PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Loftus and Nash, Pharmaceutical Process Validation, Taylor & Francis, New York.
 
Florey, Analytical Profile of Drugs (All volumes), Academic Press, United States.
 
Indian Pharmacopoeia.
 
United States Pharmacopoeia.
 
British Pharmacopoeia.
 
RPH-843(C)
 
CLINICAL PHARMACY
 
 
Unit I
 
Introduction to clinical pharmacy: Definition, development and scope of clinical pharmacy. Variability in human response to drugs and influence of disease processes: Drug handling and prescribing in the elderly, infants and children. Drug usage in pregnancy and in breast-feeding women. Prescribing for patients with renal or hepatic disease. Pharmacogenetics: implications for altered or unusual drug handling. Pharmacoepidemiology.
 
Unit II
 
Data analysis and compiling: The patient’s case history, communication skills including patient medication history interview, patient counseling. Pharmacoeconomics. Medical writing: Regulatory and educational medical writing.
 
Literature review and meta-analysis: Process, methods and application, research, report and paper/ thesis writing.
 
Pharmacovigilance programme of India (PvPI) and Geneva (UPSALA).
 
Unit III
 
Daily activities of clinical pharmacists: Drug therapy monitoring (medication chart view, clinical review), therapeutic drug monitoring, ward round participation, drug utilization evaluation/ review (DUE)/ (DUR). Quality assurance of clinical pharmacy services.
 
Unit IV
 
Research design and conduct of clinical trials: Research support including planning and execution of clinical trials. Schedule Y, GLP, GCP and ICH Guidelines, trial master file and ethical requirements. Various phases of clinical trials. Categories of Phase IV studies. Bioavailability (BA) and bioequivalence (BE) studies and the estimation with the help of plasma-concentration profile curve. Statistical analysis plan (SAP) and its importance in clinical research.
 
Unit V
 
Data collection and biostatistical analysis: Statistical principles underlying clinical trials, data handling and role of biostatistician.
 
Sample size calculation, types of variables, Type I error and type II errors, application of parametric and non-parametric tests, confidence intervals, outliers. Data analysis with the help of bio-statistical software.
 
RPH-843(C)P
 
CLINICAL PHARMACY PROJECT
 
 
Projects based on-
 
Epidemiological survey and comparison of prescribed therapeutic agents/diagnostic reports on different diseases such as- Cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system disorders, gastro intestinal tract disorders, hormonal disorders, pathogenic diseases.
 
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Scott L.T., Basic skills in interpreting laboratory data, American Society of Health System Pharmacists Inc., USA.
 
Rowland and Tozer, Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Williams and Wilkins Publication, Philadelphia, USA.
 
Shargel  L.,  Biopharmaceutics  and  Applied  Pharmacokinetics,  Prentice  Hall  publication,
 
 
Parthasarthi G., Nyfort-Hansen K. and Nahata M.C., A Text book of Clinical Pharmacy Practice-Essential Concepts and Skills, Orient Longman, Chennai.
 
Colledge N.R., Walker B. R. and Stuart H., Ralston Davisson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine, ELBS/Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, U.K.
 
Herfindal E.T. and Hirashman J.L., Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.
 
Wagner J.G., Pharmacokinetics for the Pharmaceutical Scientist, Technomic Publishing A G Basel, Switzerland.
 
Katzung B., Masters S. and Trevor A., Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, McGraw Hill Professional, U.K.
 
Spilker  B.  and  Schoenfelder  J.,  Data  Collection  Forms  in  Clinical  Trials,  Raven  Press,
 
 
Roger and Walker; Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Churchill, Livingston, London.
 
Stockley I.H., Drug interactions, Pharmaceutical Press, London.
 
12.Ravishankar K., Kiranmayi G.V.N., Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapeutics, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
RPH-843(D)
 
STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS
 
 
Unit I
 
Commerce and quality control of natural medicinal plants products, organoleptic, microscopical, physical and chemical evaluation of crude drugs.
 
Unit II
 
Standardization of plant material as per WHO guidelines.
 
 
Unit III
 
Methods of extraction and modern techniques for the isolation, purification, separation estimation and characterization of active plant constituents.
 
Unit IV
 
Analysis of official formulations derived from crude drugs, including some ayurvedic preparations.
 
 
Unit V
 
General methods of screening of natural products for following biological activity:
 
Anti-inflammatory
 
Hypoglycaemic
 
Antifertility
 
e) Psychopharmacological.
 
RPH-843(D)P
 
STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS PROJECT
 
 
Projects based on-
 
Standardization of Ayurvedic liquid formulations on the basis of the following parameters- viscosity, pH, loss on drying, foaming index, chromatography.
 
Standardization of Ayurvedic powdered formulations on the basis of following parameters- extractable matter by using various solvents, ash value, stomatal and stomatal index, trichomes and their types, loss on drying, foaming index, fiber content, chromatography.
 
Stability studies of herbal products as per WHO guidelines.
 
 
BOOK RECOMMENDED
 
Trease, G.E., and Evans, W.C., Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindall East Baorne, U.K.
 
Tyler V.E., Lynnr B. and Robbers J.E., Pharmacognosy, 8th Edition, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
 
Harborne J.B., Phytochemical Methods, Chapman & Hall International Edition, London.
 
Pharmacoepial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations, CCRAS, Delhi.
 
Dhavan B.N. and Srimal R.C., The Use of Pharmacological Techniques for Evaluation of Natural Products. CDRI, Lucknow.
 
Brain K.R. and Turner T.D, The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals, Wright, Bristol.
 
Peach K. and Tracey MV, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Springer, Berlin.
 
17. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I & II, ICMR & RRL, Jammu.
 
Chaudhary. R.D., Herbal Drug Industry, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.
 
Deore S.L., Khadabadi S.S., Baviskar B.A., Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A Comprehensive Approach, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Nadkarni A.K., Indian Materia Medica, Vol- 1&2, Popular Prakashan (P) Ltd., Bombay.
 
Sukh Dev, A Selection of Prime Ayurvedic Plant Drugs, Anamaya Publisher New Delhi.
 
Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia, Govt. of India.
 
The Wealth of India, Raw Materials (All volumes), Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi.
 
Mukherjee P.K., Quality Control of Herbal Drugs, Business Horizones Pharmaceutical Publisher, New Delhi.
 
 
RPH-843(E)
 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
 
 
Unit I
 
Fundamentals of research: Meaning and objective of research, types of research (basic, applied and patent oriented), defining research problem, research design including various methods, research process and steps involved.
 
Literature survey and documentation: Methods of literature survey, use of library, books, journals, e-journals, thesis, chemical abstracts and patent database, importance of documentation, documentation techniques, use of computer programs/packages (online resources such as-scientific search engines and online servers) in literature survey and documentation.
 
Unit II
 
Data collection and data analysis: Execution of the research, observation and collection of data, types of data (primary and secondary), methods of data collection, sample size, sampling procedure and methods. Data processing and analysis strategies. Research hypothesis (experimental and non-experimental), hypothesis testing (parametric and non-parametric tests), types of errors and their control, generalization and interpretation of results. Use of statistical softwares/ packages in data analysis (SPSS, Graph Pad Prism).
 
Unit III
 
Technical writing and reporting of research: Types of research report: Dissertation and thesis, research paper, review article, short communication, conference presentation, meeting report etc. Structure and organization of research reports: Title, abstract, key words, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgement, references, footnotes, tables and illustrations. Use of reference managing softwares (such as- MENDELEY, ENDNOTE). Impact factor, rating, indexing and citation of journals.
 
Detailed study of ‘Instruction to Authors’ of any ACS or ScienceDirect journal, a thorough understanding of steps involved in submitting articles electronically to any ACS or ScienceDirect journal (registration, new article submission, tracking process, submitting revised articles).
 
 
Unit IV
 
Research ethics, ethical consideration during animal experimentation including CPCSEA guidelines, impact of research on environment and society, commercialization of research, intellectual ownership, plagiarism and use of plagiarism detection softwares such as
 
TURNITIN, VIPER etc., responsibility and accountability of the researchers. Academia-Industry interface and research.
 
Project cost management: Cost analysis of the project, cost incurred on raw materials, procedure, instrumentation and biological testing.
 
Unit V
 
Funding agencies and research grants: Introduction to various research funding agencies such as-DST, DBT, AICTE, UGC, CSIR, ICMR, AAYUSH, and DRDO along with their functions in India. Writing a research project and procurement of research grant.
 
RPH-843(E)P
 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PROJECT
 
 
Projects based on-
 
Literature survey, data collection, formulation and testing of hypothesis, interpretation of results on a particular research project.
 
Use of statistical packages/ programs (such as SPSS, Graph Pad Prism) in data analysis.
 
Collection, compilation and execution of computational programs for research benefits.
 
Manuscript preparation, communication and follow-up of a research paper/review article.
 
Writing a research project for the procurement of research grant/travel grant from any funding agency.
 
Preparation and presentation of a research report (Oral and Poster presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint Package, Microsoft Publisher etc.).
 
BOOKS RECOMMENDED
 
Kothari C.R., Research Methodology Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, Wishwa Prakashan, New Delhi.
 
Lokesh K., Methodology of Educational research, 3rd revised Edition,Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 
Kumar R., Research Methodology, 2nd Edition, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 
Rao G.N., Research Methodology and Qualitative Methods, B.S. Publications, Hyderabad.
 
Saunders M., Lewis P.and Thornhill A., Research Methods for Business Students,3rdEdition, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 
Bolton S. and Bon C., Pharmaceutical Statistics: Practical and Clinical Applications, 4th edition, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Matad V., Anusuya D., Medicomarketing Writing, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
 
Garg, B.L., Karadia, R., Agarwal, F. and Agarwal, U.K., 2002. An introduction to Research Methodology, RBSA Publishers.
 
RPH-844P
 
REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL/ RESEARCH LABORATORY VISIT
 
 
Visit of students to an industrial establishment or an approved research laboratory. The industrial/ research laboratory visit shall include: in case of industry- visit to different sections and subsections of the industry, an idea about the functioning of the industry, product range of the industry and various approvals of the industry; in case of research laboratory- visit to different departments of the laboratory, an idea about the interdisciplinary coordination, contribution of the laboratory to the society and various approvals of the laboratory. A proper report of the same shall be submitted by the students, which shall be subsequently evaluated to assess the impact of the visit.
May be performed at the end of the 7th semester.
 

 

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